OpenSS7

OpenSS7 DLPI Porting Guide

About This Manual

This is Edition 7.20141001, last updated 2014-10-25, of The OpenSS7 DLPI Porting Guide, for Version 1.1 release 7.20141001 of the OpenSS7 package.


Preface


Notice

This package is released and distributed under the AGPL (see GNU Affero General Public License). Please note, however, that there are different licensing terms for the manual pages and some of the documentation (derived from OpenGroup1 publications and other sources). Consult the permission notices contained in the documentation for more information.

This manual is released under the FDL (see GNU Free Documentation License) with no invariant sections.


Abstract

This manual provides a DLPI Porting Guide for OpenSS7.

Objective

The objective of this manual is to provide a porting guide for the STREAMS and DLPI programmer when porting STREAMS drivers, modules and applications to OpenSS7 from other major implementations of DLPI, such as AIX, AIXlink/X.25, Digital UNIX, HP-UX, IRIX, OSF, PowerMAX, Solaris, Solstice X.25, SVR4.2, Tru64 UNIX, UnixWare, and others.

This guide provides information to developers on the use of the DLPI interfaces and drivers at the user and kernel levels as well as the difference between the OpenSS7 implementation of DLPI drivers and those of these other systems.

Intent

The intent of this manual is to act as a guide to porting DLPI STREAMS modules, drivers and applications programs from other UNIX implementations of DLPI to Linux Fast-STREAMS2. It is intended to be read alone and is not intended to replace or supplement the OpenSS7 manual pages. For a reference for writing code, the manual pages (see dlpi(7)) provide a btter reference to the programmer. Although this describes the features of the OpenSS7 package, OpenSS7 Corporation is under no obligation to provide any software, system or features listed herein.

Audience

This manual is intended for a highly technical audience. The reader should already be familiar with Linux kernel and user application programming, the Linux file system, character devices, driver input and output, interrupts, software interrupt handling, scheduling, process contexts, multiprocessor locks, thread programming, POSIX porgramming, etc.

This guide is intended for network and systems programmers, who use the STREAMS and DLPI mechanism at user and kernel levels for Linux and UNIX system communications services. Readers of the guide are expected to possess prior knowledge of the Linux and UNIX system, programming, networking, and data communication.

To derive maximum use from this porting guide, it is intended that the reader also be familiar with the user of STREAMS and DLPI under UNIX and POSIX systems implementing DLPI drivers and applications libraries. The reader should certainly be familiar with the DLPI implementations on the UNIX or POSIX system from which STREAMS drivers, modules or applications are being ported.


Revisions

Take care that you are working with a current version of this manual: you will not be notified of updates. To ensure that you are working with a current version, contact the Author, or check The OpenSS7 Project website for a current version.

A current version of this manual is normally distributed with the OpenSS7 package, openss7-1.1.7.20141001.3

Version Control

$Log: dlpi_porting.texi,v $
Revision 1.1.2.2  2011-02-07 02:21:33  brian
- updated manuals

Revision 1.1.2.1  2009-06-21 10:40:08  brian
- added files to new distro

ISO 9000 Compliance

Only the TeX, texinfo, or roff source for this manual is controlled. An opaque (printed, postscript or portable document format) version of this manual is an UNCONTROLLED VERSION.


Disclaimer

OpenSS7 Corporation disclaims all warranties with regard to this documentation including all implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, or title; that the contents of the manual are suitable for any purpose, or that the implementation of such contents will not infringe on any third party patents, copyrights, trademarks or other rights. In no event shall OpenSS7 Corporation be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with any use of this manual or the performance or implementation of the contents thereof.

OpenSS7 Corporation reserves the right to revise this software and documentation for any reason, including but not limited to, conformity with standards promulgated by various agencies, utilization of advances in the state of the technical arts, or the reflection of changes in the design of any techniques, or procedures embodied, described, or referred to herein. OpenSS7 Corporation is under no obligation to provide any feature listed herein.

U.S. Government Restricted Rights

If you are licensing this Software on behalf of the U.S. Government ("Government"), the following provisions apply to you. If the Software is supplied by the Department of Defense ("DoD"), it is classified as "Commercial Computer Software" under paragraph 252.227-7014 of the DoD Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("DFARS") (or any successor regulations) and the Government is acquiring only the license rights granted herein (the license rights customarily provided to non-Government users). If the Software is supplied to any unit or agency of the Government other than DoD, it is classified as "Restricted Computer Software" and the Government’s rights in the Software are defined in paragraph 52.227-19 of the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("FAR") (or any successor regulations) or, in the cases of NASA, in paragraph 18.52.227-86 of the NASA Supplement to the FAR (or any successor regulations).


Acknowledgements

As with most open source projects, this project would not have been possible without the valiant efforts and productive software of the Free Software Foundation, the Linux Kernel Community, and the open source software movement at large.


Sponsors

Funding for completion of the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 package was provided in part by:

Monavacon Limited
OpenSS7 Corporation

Additional funding for The OpenSS7 Project was provided by:

Monavacon LimitedOpenSS7 Corporation
AirNet CommunicationsComverse Ltd.
eServGlobal (NZ) Pty Ltd.Excel Telecommunications
France TelecomGeoLink SA
HOB InternationalLockheed Martin Co.
MotorolaNetCentrex S. A.
Newnet Communications, Inc.Nortel Networks
Peformance Technologies, Inc.Sonus Networks Inc.
SS8 Networks Inc.SysMaster Corporation
TECORETumsan Oy
VerisignVodare Ltd.

Contributors

The primary contributor to the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 package is Brian F. G. Bidulock. The following is a list of notable contributors to The OpenSS7 Project:

- Per Berquist- Kutluk Testicioglu
- John Boyd- John Wenker
- Chuck Winters- Angel Diaz
- Peter Courtney- Jérémy Compostella
- Tom Chandler- Sylvain Chouleur
- Gurol Ackman- Christophe Nolibos
- Pierre Crepieux- Bryan Shupe
- Christopher Lydick- D. Milanovic
- Omer Tunali- Tony Abo
- John Hodgkinson- Others

Supporters

Over the years a number of organizations have provided continued support in the form of assessment, inspection, testing, validation and certification.


Telecommunications

Integrated Telecom SolutionsAASTRA
Accuris NetworksAculab
AdaxAEPONA
AirNet CommunicationsAirwide Solutions
AlacreAlcatel
Alcatel-LucentAltobridge
AnamApertio (now Nokia)
Alaska Power & TelephoneAricent
Artesyn (now Emerson)Arthus Technologies
Bharti TelesoftBubbleMotion
Continuous Computing (Trillium)Cellnext Solutions Limited
CiscoCodent Networks
Cogeco Cable Inc.Comverse Ltd.
Condor NetworksCoral Telecom
CorecessCorelatus
CosiniData Connection
DatacraftDatatek Applications Inc.
DatatronicsDialogic
DigiumDruid Software
DTAG (Deutsche Telecom AG)Empirix
Engage Communication Inc.Ericsson
eServGlobal (NZ) Pty Ltd.ETSI
Excel TelecommunicationsFlextronics (now Aricent)
France TelecomGemini Mobile Technologies
Geolink (now SeaMobile)Global Edge
HuaweiIBSYS Canada
Integral Access (now Telco Systems)Integrat Mobile Aggregation Services
Kineto WirelessLucent
Maestro CommunicationsMCI
MindspeedMobis
MobixellMotivity Telecom, Inc.
MotorolaMpathix Inc.
m-Wise Inc.Myriad Group
Net2PhoneNetCentrex S. A.
NetTest A/S (now Anritsu)NeuvaTel PCS
Newnet Communications, Inc.NMS (now Dialogic)
Noble Systems CorporationNokia
Nortel Networksj2 Global Communications, Inc.
OnMobileOrange
OuroborosP3 Solutions GmbH
Primal Technologies Inc.Propolys Pte Ltd.
Peformance Technologies, Inc.Pulse Voice Inc.
Reliance CommunicationsRoamware Inc.
SONORYS Technology GmbHSonus Networks Inc.
Spider Ltd. (now Emerson)SS8 Networks Inc.
Oasis SystemsStratus
Stratus Technologies Bermuda Ltd.Sicap AG
Switchlab Ltd.Synapse Mobile Networks SA
SysMaster CorporationTata Communications
TecoreTekno Telecom LLC
TelcordiaTelecom Italia
TeledesignTelemetrics Inc.
TelnorTE-Systems
Texas Instruments Inc.Tumsan Oy
UlticomVanu Inc.
Vecto Communications SRLVeraz Networks
VeriSignVodare Ltd.
VSE NET GmbHThe Software Group Limited
WINGcon GmbHWipro Technologies
Xentel Inc.YCOM SA
ZTE Corporation

Aerospace and Military

Advanced TechnologiesAltobridge
AltobridgeBBN (Bolt, Beranek, and Neuman)
ARINCBoldon James
ATOS OriginLockheed Martin Co.
BoeingNorthrop Grumman Corporation
Boldon JamesQinetiQ
CRNASAAB
DSNA-DGAC 4Sandia National Laboratories
DLR 5Thales
DSNA-DTIWright-Patterson Air Force Base
Egis-Avia (Sofreavia)
MetaSlash, Inc.
Sofreavia
FAA WJHTC6
Thales ATM/Air Systems

Financial, Business and Security

AlebraAlebra
Automated Trading Desk (now Citi)Boldon James
Banco CredicoopFujitsu-Seimens
BeMacFutureSoft
Boldon JamesGSX
CyberSource CorporationHOB International
Fujitsu-SeimensHP (Hewlett-Packard)
FutureSoftIBM
Gcom, Inc.
GSX
HOB International
HP (Hewlett-Packard)
IBM
Lightbride (now CyberSource)
MasterCardAlert Logic
Network Executive Software Inc.Apani
Packetware Inc.BeMac
Packetware Inc.ERCOM
Prism Holdings Ltd.Hitech Systems
S2 Systems (now ACI)iMETRIK
Symicron Computer Communications LimitedIntrado Inc.

Education, Health Care and Nuclear Power

IEEE Computer SocietyAteb
ENST 7Mandexin Systems Corporation
HTW-Saarland 8
Kansas State UniversityAreva NP
University of North Carolina CharlotteEuropean Organization for Nuclear Research

Agencies

It would be difficult for the OpenSS7 Project to attain the conformance and certifications that it has without the free availability of specifications documents and standards from standards bodies and industry associations. In particular, the following:

3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project)
ATM Forum
EIA/TIA (Electronic Industries Alliance)
ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)
ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)
IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers)
IETF (The Internet Engineering Task Force)
ISO (International Organization for Standardization)
ITU (International Telecommunications Union)
Mulutiservices Forum
The Open Group

Of these, ICAO, ISO, IEEE and EIA have made at least some documents publicly available. ANSI is notably missing from the list: at one time draft documents were available from ANSI (ATIS), but that was curtailed some years ago. Telecordia does not release any standards publicly. Hopefully these organizations will see the light and realize, as the others have, that to remain current as a standards organization in today’s digital economy requires providing individuals with free access to documents.


1 Introduction

This guide documents the porting of DLPI STREAMS modules, drivers and applications programs from various UNIX implementations to Linux Fast-STREAMS9.


1.1 Overview

This guide documents the porting of DLPI drivers, modules and applications programs from various UNIX implementations of DLPI to Linux Fast-STREAMS10. It details some of the differences between other implementations of DLPI and that of Linux Fast-STREAMS11.

In addition, it provides documentation on STREAMS drivers and modules for DLPI including:


1.2 Organization

This manual is organized (loosely) into several sections as follows:


1.3 Conventions

This manual uses texinfo typographic conventions.


1.4 Concepts


2 Porting

This guide is largely focused on porting STREAMS drivers, modules and applications programs that act in the capacity of a DLS User. Whereas other documents tend to focus on simply porting drivers for specific interface cards, that topic is adequately addressed elsewhere for the Linux kernel.12 Whenever a network device driver has been written for a device under Linux, using Linux paradigms and procedures, it can automatically work with DLPI. Therefore, this guide focusses on the differences between the DLPI interfaces that would be experienced by the DLS User: STREAMS modules that push over DLPI Streams; STREAMS drivers under which DLPI Streams are linked; and applications programs that access the DLPI interface directly as a user-space program.

Linux Fast-STREAMS and each of its add-on packages, including OpenSS7, ship with a wide assortment of manual pages. Most manual pages contain a section entitled “COMPATIBILITY” that provides compatibility and porting information for various mainstream UNIX implementations. For information on the minor differences in the STREAMS environment, see the Linux Fast-STREAMS package, streams-0.9.2.4.

There are hundreds of manual pages in the OpenSS7 package for DLPI. These manual pages can be explored best by starting with the dlpi(7) manual page. The manual pages document both DLPI Revision 2.0.0 standard behaviour, as well as the OpenSS7 implementations of extension primitives, input-output controls, and features documented for other operating systems including AIX, AIXlink/X.25, HP-UX, IRIX, OSF, PowerMAX, Solaris, Solstice X.25, SVR 4, SVR 4.2MP, UnixWare 7. Although each of the DLPI related manual pages of supported functions, primitives and structures provide compatibilty and porting information, this document attempts to gather together pertinent information concerning porting DLPI modules, drivers and applications programs from various UNIX operating systems supporting STREAMS and DLPI to OpenSS7.


2.1 Porting Organization

The porting information in this guide is organized by the flavor of operating system from which porting is being attempted. Note that, aside from configuration details, any system not listed here that is based on SVR 4, SVR 4.2MP, or on another of the implementations, should start with that implementation’s portability information. Porting information is included for porting from implementations based on a strict interpretation of the DLPI standards, the AIX operating system and the AIXlink/X.25 package, the HP-UX operating system, the IRIX operating system, the the OSF, Digital UNIX, or Tru64 UNIX operating system, the PowerMAX operating system, the Solaris operating system and the Solstice X.25 or SunLink X.25 packages, the SVR 4 and SVR 4.2MP operating system, and the UnixWare 7 operating system.

Note that additional porting information with regard to porting X.25 applications from various implementations to Linux Fast-STREAMS is detailed in the X.25 Porting Guide which is part of the OpenSS7 X.25 package (strx25).

Porting information is organized into sections as follows:

Porting from DLPIPorting general DLPI applications.
Porting from AIXPorting AIX DLPI applications.
Porting from AIXlink/X.25Porting AIXlink/X.25 DLPI applications.
Porting from HP-UXPorting HP-UX DLPI applications.
Porting from IRIXPorting IRIX DLPI applications.
Porting from OSFPorting OSF DLPI applications.
Porting from PowerMAXPorting PowerMAX DLPI applications.
Porting from SolarisPorting Solaris DLPI applications.
Porting from Solstice X.25Porting Solstice X.25 DLPI applications.
Porting from SVR4.2Porting SVR4.2 DLPI applications.
Porting from UnixWarePorting UnixWare DLPI applications.
Developing on OpenSS7Developing DLPI applications on OpenSS7.
Porting from DLPIPorting general DLPI applications.
Porting from AIXPorting AIX DLPI applications.
Porting from AIXlink/X.25Porting AIXlink/X.25 DLPI applications.
Porting from HP-UXPorting HP-UX DLPI applications.
Porting from IRIXPorting IRIX DLPI applications.
Porting from OSFPorting OSF DLPI applications.
Porting from PowerMAXPorting PowerMAX DLPI applications.
Porting from SolarisPorting Solaris DLPI applications.
Porting from Solstice X.25Porting Solstice X.25 DLPI applications.
Porting from SVR4.2Porting SVR4.2 DLPI applications.
Porting from UnixWarePorting UnixWare DLPI applications.
Developing on OpenSS7Developing DLPI applications on OpenSS7.

3 General Porting Considerations

There are several aspects of porting from the various environments to Linux Fast-STREAMS that can be categorized roughly by the functional interface to which the aspect corresponds. These apects are:

DLPI Driver Features

This aspect includes support for features that are pervasive over the other aspects, but entail some service or feature that is not provided directly by the DLPI standard specification. Some examples are Raw Mode, LLC2 Mode, Fast Path, and combined Connectionless and Connection-Oriented mode drivers.

DLPI and Extension Primitives

This aspect include support for standard DLPI primitive subsets as well as additional implementation-specific extension primitives not found in the DLPI standard.

DLPI Driver Input-Output Controls

This apsect includes the implementation-specific, or somethimes protocol-specific, input-output controls provided in support of DLPI drivers, modules and add-on libraries.

DLPI Device Drivers and Modules.

This aspect includes the STREAMS device drivers and pushable modules that are provided by an implementation. It also includes the device driver organization (whether split into a generic interface component and a device specific component, or not).

DLPI Support and Add-On Libraries

This aspect includes the shared-object support or add-on libraries that are used to manage or provide application programming interfaces to the DLPI device drivers.

DLPI Support and Management Utilities

This apsect includes utilities provided with the system that support the configuraiton, management or trouble-shooting of DLPI drivers and modules, whether DLPI generic, or protocol-specific.

DLPI Device and Driver Management

This aspect includes SNMP and CMIP agents and the associated MIBs that provide for remote management of the DLPI device drivers and applications.

The sections that follow provide an overview of each of these aspects. Also, each specific porting section has sub-sections that detail each of these aspects for a specific porting scenario.


3.1 Driver Addressing


3.1.1 Driver Naming


3.1.2 PPA Selection

Some DLPI implementations provide only Style 1 drivers (that do not require PPA selection); some provide only Style2 drivers (that require PPA selection); and, some support both Style 1 and Style 2. Others, like AIXlink/X.25 provide a Style 1 driver that acts like a Style 2 driver in that the PPA is encoded in the SAP during bind.

Some Style 2 drivers are multiplexing STREAMS drivers that need PPA-specific Streams linked beneath the multiplexing driver. Other Style 2 drivers have access to all installed PPAs internal to the DLPI driver implementation.

OpenSS7 provides fundamentally Style 2 drivers that have access to all Linux native devices in the system but which can also be individually accessed suing a Style 1 access to the same driver. OpenSS7 has Style 2 PPAs and Style 1 minor device numbers that are based on the ifIndex of the network device.

Style 2 drivers that use a multiplexing STREAMS driver normally have some configuration program that assigns the PPA for each linked Stream. Some implementations provide a mechanism whereby the DLS User can determine which PPAs are available in the system and the characteristics of each PPA. HP-UX provides such a facility.


3.1.3 SAP Addressing

SAP addressing varies somewhat from implementation to implementation for LAPB, HDLC and SDLC; however, most implementations are the same for Ethernet and LLC SAP addressing. For DL_CSMACD, normally if the dl_sap field in the DL_BIND_REQ contains a one-byte value, it is considered to be an LLC SAP. This SAP must be an even number between 0x02 and 0xFE inclusive. For Ethernet media, this results in an 802.2 LLC frame in an 802.3 length indicated frame (length less than or equal to 1536). When the dl_sap field in the DL_BIND_REQ contains a two-byte value, it is considered to be an Ethernet II EtherType. For Ethernet media, the EtherType is carried in the length indicator of the 802.3 frame. For non-Ethernet media supporting LLC, such as FDDI, Token-Ring or ATM, the framing is assumed to be SNAP with the DSAP/SSAP of 0xAAAA, unnumbered information control field (0x03), OUI of 0x000000, and then then two-byte Ethertype, unless the Ethertype SAP bound is itself 0xAAAA or 0xAA. When the SAP bound is 0xAAAA or 0xAA, a subsequent bind operation containing the control field, OUI and protocol identifier is necessary, providing these fields in the dl_sap_length and dl_sap_offset fields of the DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ. Some implementations do no permit two-byte binds on SNAP and require a subsequent bind, where as some will perform Ethernet SNAP automatically on a two-byte bind.

For LAPB, LAPF, LAPD, HDLC and SDLC, some implementations code the logical line number (or TEI or DLCI) in the SAP, as well as whether the station is a primary or secondary station. Some require PPA configuration to determine whether address fields are extended or normal. OpenSS7 automatically determines whether station addresses are extended or normal from the significant bits in the bound SAP, and uses a high byte to determine the role of the station. This is inconsistent accross implementations and compatibility requires porting the DLS user to use the SAP addressing scheme provided by OpenSS7.


3.1.4 Primitive Addresses

For most implemetnations and in normal modes, the address used in the DL_UNITDATA_REQ or DL_CONNECT_REQ or DL_CONNECT_RES primitives require the entire DLSAP of the destination to be specified. For Ethernet operation, this is the 6-byte MAC address (DA) of the destination (for Token Ring the 8-byte full MAC is derived from the 6-byte MAC). For LLC operation, this is the 6-byte MAC address (DA) followed by the one-octet DSAP.

For LLC or SNAP operation, in normal modes the Unnumbered Information control field (0x03) is automatically included by the driver. In LLC2 Mode, on some implemetnations, the DLS User must provide the control field.

Link layer headers are produced automatically in normal modes. The SA and SSAP are determined using the bound SAP and attached PPA, and are typically an individual address. When in the raw mode, addresses are not provided in the DL_UNITDATA_REQ, DL_DATA_REQ or DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ, and the link layer headers must be completed by the DLS User and included in the data payload of these primitives.


3.1.5 Quality of Service Parameters

Most implementations do not support quality of service parameters.

OpenSS7 supports quality of service parameters using the DL_QOS_CL_RANGE1, DL_QOS_CL_SEL1 DL_QOS_CO_RANGE1, and DL_QOS_CO_SEL1 structure types.


3.2 Driver Features

Driver features that distinguish DLPI implementations tend to be which LAN and WAN protocols are supported directly, and which major modes in which the driver can operate. Most implementations provide direct support for LAN operation, Ethernet, SNAP and LLC Type 1, and support a Raw, LLC2, and Promiscuous Modes. Some implementations go on to support LLC Type 2, WAN operation under LAPB, LAPD and LAPF, and support Fast Path and combined connectionless and connect-oriented modes.

In support of porting from as wide an array of implementations as possible, OpenSS7 provides support for both LAN and WAN operation, all types, except LLC Type 3, and all driver modes.


3.2.1 LAN Operation

Lan operation breaks down into Ethernet, LLC SNAP, LLC Type 1, LLC Type 2, and LLC Type 3 operation. No DLPI implementations support LLC Type 3 directly. Some implementations do not support LLC Type 2 directly, but some provide an LLC2 mode instead. All support Ethernet, SNAP and LLC Type 1.

For as wide a range of portability as possible, OpenSS7 supports EthernetII, SNAP, LLC Types 1 and 2, as well as LLC2 mode. LLC Type 3 is not supported initially.

3.2.1.1 Ethernet and SNAP Operation

All DLPI implementations detailed in this document support EthernetII and ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) SNAP operation for providing EthernetII over LLC. Some implementations also support non-Ethernet SNAP for private or experimental protocols.

OpenSS7 also supports EthernetII and SNAP operation and also provides support for non-Ethernet SNAP for private or experimental protocols using the DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ primitive with the DL_HIERARCHICAL_BIND selection.

3.2.1.2 LLC Type 1 Operation

All DLPI implementations detailed in this document support ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 1 operation as is required by ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) Class I operation.

OpenSS7 supports LLC TYpe 1 in a fashion similar to most implementations through a super-set of standard DLPI primitives, extension primitives, and implementation-specific input-output controls.

3.2.1.3 LLC Type 2 Operation

A number of DLPI implementations detailed in this document support ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 2 operation as required for ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) Class II or IV operation. Implementations support LLC Type 2 directly are AIX and HP-UX. An add-on package to Solaris also supports LLC Type 2 directly.

Some DLPI implementations support LLC Type 2 indirectly by providing an LLC2 Mode of operation; however, this approach does not include LLC Type 2 state machines and also does not directly support connection-oriented mode data link service. See LLC2 Mode.

OpenSS7 supports both approaches to LLC Type 2. The DLPI driver provides a direct LLC Type 2 approach for STREAMS drivers, modules and applications needing full DLPI DL_CODLS support, as well as a DL_CLDLS LLC2 Mode that supports implementing LLC Type 2 in the DLS user and upper layer protocol modules such as X.25.

3.2.1.4 LLC Type 3 Operation

No DLPI impleentations detailed in this document support ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 3 operation directly as would be required for ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) Class III or IV operation. There may be some add-on software, but documentation for such software is not readily available.


3.2.2 WAN Operation

Few UNIX implementations support WAN operation (LAPB, LAPF, LAPD) directly. A possible exception is AIX, which appears to integrate a wide range of data links, and UnixWare, which appears to integrate LAPD. Other implementations require add-on or value-add software packages to support WAN links.

The OpenSS7 DLPI driver supports WAN links directly, accessing Linux native raw HDLC network devices supported by the Linux kernel. Additional packages for X.25 and ISDN support STREAMS based raw HDLC network devices in support of LAPB, LAPD and LAPF in a similar fashion. The full range of standard DLPI primitives, implementation specific extension primitives, and implementation specific input-output controls are supported across the WAN link implementations as well.


3.2.3 Driver Modes

Most DLPI implementations support a Promiscuous Mode, and this mode is the only major driver mode for which service primitive support is provided in the DLPI standard. Many implementations provide a Raw Mode for monitoring and capture purposes, or for new protocol development. Implementations that do not provide LLC Type 2 directly often provide an LLC2 Mode which is useful to avoid full Raw Mode when LLC Type 2 is implemented by higher protocol modules. Some implementations provide a CMSA/CD Mode; other implementations default to this behaviour anyway. A few implementations provide a Fast Path mode of operation whereby upper layer network protocol modules can associate a network address with a DLSAP and provide complete link-layer header creation from a cache instead of requiring the DLPI layer to regenerate the link-layer headers for each packet transmitted. AIX has a combined LLC Type 1 (DL_CLDLS) and LLC Type 2 (DL_CODLS) data link service mode whereby both connectionless and connection-oriented service can be invoked on the same Stream. This makes use of LLC Type 2 direct support by upper layer protocol modules somewhat simplified.

OpenSS7 implements all driver modes in an attempt to be compatible with as wide a range of DLPI implementations as possible, at least at the source-compatibility level.

3.2.3.1 Promiscuous Mode

A number of DLPI implementations support a Promiscuous Mode. Promiscuous mode is directly supported by the standard DLPI specification with the DL_PROMISCON_REQ and DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ. The promiscuous mode is normally available at three levels: the physical, SAP and multicast address level. Promiscuous mode at the physical level is intended for monitoring at the physical level on the link: all messages received from the wire regardless of DLSAP are delivered to the DLS user. Promiscuous mode at the SAP level permits all messages intended for bound DLSAP, but for any SAP component in the DLSAP, are delivered to the DLS user. Promiscuous mode at the multicast address level normally means that all messages intended for any multicast address and bound SAP component will be delivered to the DLS user. By its very nature, promscuous modes are related to a connectionless data link service, DL_CLDLS.

Some implementations support all three promiscuous levels using the standard DLPI DL_PROMISCON_REQ and DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ primitives. Others required the use of implementation-specific input-output controls. Sometimes SAP level promiscous mode is implemented by binding to a special SAP value, PROMISCUOUS_SAP. Some implementations do not have a promiscuous mode at the multicast or group address level. Yet others do no provide promiscuous modes at all.

OpenSS7 supports promiscuous mode using the standard DLPI DL_PROMISCON_REQ and DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ primitives, but also supports binding to the PROMISCUOUS_SAP, activation of promicuous modes using input-output controls: primarily DLIOCSPROMISC, DLIOCGPROMISC, and activation of multicast addresses using implementation specific extensions used to enable all multicast addresses.

3.2.3.2 Raw Mode

All drivers the support the connectionless-mode data link service provide a raw mode. Drivers that do not support connectionless-mode data link service, such as AIXlink/X.25 and Solstice X.25, do not support a raw mode.

Raw Mode is a specialized mode in which the driver can be placed that permits the examination and generation of link-layer headers including MAC addresses. What it does is extend the information included in data packets delivered to the DLS User with the complete link layer headers, including the link layer addresses. Also, data packets requested by the DLS User for transmission also include the complete link-layer headers (including MAC addresses).

One of the major purposes of the raw mode has been the interfacing of networking device drivers to packet monitoring and capture libraries such as the pcap(3) library. For this application it is quite effective when combined with the promiscuous mode.

Unfortunately, this mode of operation was never standardized in the DLPI specification, and thus implementations vary. Solaris, when placed in this mode delivers packets to the DLS user with DL_DATA_IND primitives and expected DL_DATA_REQ primitives from the DLS user; AIX issues DL_UNITDATA_IND or DL_DATA_IND primitives and expects DL_UNITDATA_REQ or DL_DATA_REQ primitives; HP-UX issues DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ primitives and expects DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ primitives. Also, AIX, Solaris and others set the raw mode using an input-output control, see dlpi_ioctl(4); HP-UX uses a specialized dl_service_mode setting of DL_HP_RAWDLS.13

3.2.3.3 LLC2 Mode

Most implementations of DLPI that do not support ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 2 operation directly, support an LLC2 mode. Normally, for ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 1 operation, the link-layer headers including the DA/SA, DSAP/SSAP and Unnumbered Information Control Field (0x03) are stripped from the packet before it is delivered to the DLS User in a DL_UNITDATA_IND primitive. Also, when the DLS User provided data for transmission with a DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitive, the driver adds DA/SA, DSAP/SSAP and Unnumbered Information Control Field (0x03) before transmitting the packet on the wire.

For LLC Type 2 operation, it is necessary that the DLS User be able to affect the value and format of the Control Field so that the appropriate frame type can be both received and transmitted. Therefore, drivers that do not support the DL_CLDLS data link service mode, dl_service_mode, support an LLC2 Mode. When a Stream is placed into LLC2 Mode, the DLS Provider delivers and expects the control field to be part of the data payload present in the DL_UNITDATA_IND and DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitives. Other DL_CLDLS data link service mode operations are unaffected. This permits the DLS User to implement the ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 2 procedures within the DLS User.

Implementations that support an LLC2 Mode are: SVR4.2,14 UnixWare.15

Implementations that provide direct support in the DLPI driver for LLC Type 2 operation do not normally have an LLC2 Mode. These are: AIXlink X.25,16 HP-UX,17 Solstice X.25.18

3.2.3.4 CSMA/CD Mode

CSMA/CD Mode is a major driver operating mode that permits both EthernetII and ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC operating over Ethernet media. Some older DLPI implementations required this mode to be set, otherwise, Ethernet drivers would have to run either in a pure EthernetII mode or a pure ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) mode, but not both.

OpenSS7 always runs in this mode (because Linux is set to operate in this mode for Ethernet media) and its selection is not necessary, but is automatic. The only wrinkle is for large MTU GiGE operation.

3.2.3.5 Fast Path

Fast Path is a major driver operating mode that provides for intermodule coordination between the DLPI driver and upper layer protocols. In this mode, a mechanism is provided whereby the upper layer protocol module can determine the link-layer headers for any given DLSAP. The upper layer protocol module caches these link-layer headers against the upper layer destination protocol address (e.g. IP address) and provides those link-layer headers on each DL_CLDLS message send to DLPI. Another mechanism is provided that allows the DLS provider to indicate to the upper layer protocol module whenever link-layer headers have been invalidated (for example, due to a DL_SET_PHYS_ADDR_REQ operation). Upon receiving this indication, the upper layer module refreshes its cache of link-layer headers by mapping needed DLSAP addresses again. Solaris and HP-UX provide such a Fast Path mode of operation.

OpenSS7 also provides Fast Path modes compatible with Solaris and HP-UX in support of porting STREAMS drivers, modules and applications to Linux.

3.2.3.6 Combined Mode

Often a directly provided LLC Type 2 support in the DLPI driver is cumbersome for upper layer protocol implementation that required both an LLC Type 1 access for routing protocols and an LLC Type 2 access for connections. Often, upper layer protocol implementations will use DL_CLDLS access in Raw Mode or LLC2 Mode to circumvent the issue of having to link multiple Streams for a single upper layer service. AIX, however, provides a combined connectionless and connection-oriented mode to solve this issue using DLPI. In this mode, a Stream operates in both DL_CLDLS and DL_CODLS modes simultaneously, permitting a single DLPI Stream to provide both connectionless routing protocols as well as connection-oriented protocol connections.

In support of porting AIX DLPI drivers, modules and applications to Linux, OpenSS7 provides support for this combined connectionless and connection-oriented mode.


3.3 Primitives

Normally, DLPI implementations are based on the standard set of DLPI primitives.19 Most implementations provide a subset of the management primitives, and connectionless mode DLPI primitives. This is usually sufficient to represent MAC (Ethernet LAN) devices and ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 1 devices. Some implementations also provide for connection-oriented mode DLPI primitives, normally in support of ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 2 devices. Most implementations provide optional add-on softtware that uses connection-oriented mode DLPI primitives in support of ISO/IEC 8208 (X.25) LAPB devices. Several implementations also provide extension primitives that support specific management or extend the features of the DLPI.

AIX, AIXlink/X.25, IRIX, OSF, PowerMAX, Solstice X.25 and SVR4.2 do not document any extension primitives for DLPI.

HP-UX documents a number of general purpose management support extension primitives for DLPI, as well as a set of connection-oriented mode DLPI extension primitives designed to explicitly support management of ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC Type 2 connections. Solaris documents a number of general purpose management support extension primitives for DLPI, as well as a number of Solaris feature-specific DLPI extension primitives. UnixWare documents a number of management support extension primitives for DLPI.

OpenSS7 supports all standard DLPI primitives and many extension primitives provided by other implementations, HP-UX, Solaris and UnixWare, for compatibilty and to ease porting of STREAMS DLPI drivers, modules and applications programs to Linux Fast-STREAMS.

Each porting section includes a discussion of the supported standard DLPI primitives and the extension primitives provided by each of the implementations, and how the equivalent primitives can be best used when porting DLPI applications to Linux Fast-STREAMS. Unfortunately, because the ordinal values of extension primitives are not readily available, extension primitives are source-compatible only.


3.4 Driver Input-Output Controls

Although the ability to perform input-output controls is always provided in conjunction with STREAMS drivers, the DLPI standards do not define or standardize on any input-output controls for DLPI. As a result, almost all implementations of DLPI provide management and other input-output controls that are completely implementation-specific and not generic in any way. Some implementations may provide for generic input-output controls across various DLS providers within the same operating systems, however, these is only one case of which the author is aware that the input-output controls of two implementations match in function and name (probably from BSD deriviation): that is the DL_IOC_HDR_INFO input-output control. This input-output control is shared by both Solaris and HP-UX.

Some implementations, such as Solaris and Solstice X.25, or AIX and AIXlink/X.25, define a different set of input-output controls for non-X.25 or connectionless mode providers that are provided by X.25 or connection-oriented mode DLS providers.

Some implemetnations, such as AIX, and Solaris, provide a set of input-output controls that support add-on libraries for use by DLPI applications.

The closest set of input-output controls that are common across a number of implementations are those provided originally by SVR4.2. This set is the DLIOC set of input-output controls. This set of input-output controls, or subsets of this set, appear to be supported by IRIX, PowerMAX, SVR4.2, UnixWare 1 and 2, but appear to have been dropped by UnixWare 7.

OpenSS7 provides a set of input-output controls that includes all of the documented input-output from intended porting sources, including those in supported of add-on applications libraries. Unfortunately, because the ordinal values of input-output control is not readily available, input-output controls are, for the most part, source-compatible only. Also, OpenSS7 provides an additional set of OpenSS7-specific input-output controls intended on easing the development of SNMP and CMIP management agents under Linux Fast-STREAMS.

See the input-output controls section under the porting topic for each of these implementations for more information.


3.5 Device Drivers and Modules

3.5.1 Driver Organization

Most DLPI implementations provide for two models of device driver organization:

  1. The first organization consists of a monolithic device drivers that implements both the lower level device driver functions (e.g., interrupt service routines, interacting with hardware) as well as the interface functions (passing of DLPI primitives).

    Under this organization, writing a new device driver consists of writing a complete monolithic STREAMS driver.

  2. The second organization consists of a device driver separated into a top-half and a bottom-half. The top-half is concerned with the passing of DLPI primitives with the user of the Stream and can be largely generic, and certainly not device-specific. The bottom-half is concerned with the interaction with the hardware and is device specific.

    Under this organization it is possible to write a new bottom-half for a specific device without the need to write a new top-half nor to become involved with many STREAMS specifics.

AIX uses the monolithic device driver approach, as does AIXlink/X.25. HP-UX provides the separated driver approach. Solaris provides both a separated driver approach and a monolithic driver approach. Solstice X.25 provides a monolithic driver approach.

OpenSS7 provides both a separated and monolithic driver approach. However, the separated approach is different than that of HP-UX or Solaris, and more closely related to that of OSF. In the Linux Fast-STREAMS approach, the bottom-half of the device drivers is the Linux native device driver implementation. The top-half of the driver provides access to Linux native device drivers using a generic DLPI layer. Under the monolithic approach, Linux Fast-STREAMS provides the ability to develop a device driver using either the DLPI or the CDI interfaces.

3.5.2 Driver Abstraction

Regardless of specific device driver organization, some implementations provide a mechanism whereby disparate device drivers can be accessed through a single pseudo-device (and sometimes multiplexing) driver.

This device driver abstraction can is acheived in several ways:

  1. through use of a generic top-half/bottom-half device driver construction, where the top-half of the device driver is common to all device drivers;
  2. through the use of add-on libraries that insulate the device user from the disparate access methods of various underlying drivers; or,
  3. through the provision of a multiplexing pseudo-device driver that collects all device drivers under a single multiplexing driver.

AIX uses the add-on library approach with one wrinkle: the device drivers must implement a common set of input-output controls to support the generic data link control libraries. AIXlink/X.25 does not provide generic access to the data links it provides.

HP-UX uses the top-half/bottom-half approach, and a single dlpi device driver is used to access all devices on the system.

Solaris uses a multiplexing driver to collect the disparate access methods of, for example, MAC and LLC Type 1 device drivers. Solstice X.25 does not provide generic access to the data links it provides.

OpenSS7 provides a single pseudo-device driver that both provides access to Linux native devices as well a permitting monolithic organization device Streams providing either the CDI or DLPI interfaces to be linked under the multiplex driver and provided to DLS users in the same fashion as Linux native devices. Also, the driver permits these CDI or DLPI devices to be provided for use by Linux native applications.

Specific driver and device names provided by the various implementations are detailed in the specific porting section.

3.5.3 Modules

Nearly all of the implementations provide two ipso-facto standard modules for use with DLPI device drivers:

bufmod(4)

The buffer module is used to collect many packets into a single data transfer to user space. It is particularly useful when used with a DLPI driver in raw mode and when in promiscuous mode, to group individual packets into blocks.

pfmod(4)

The packet filter module is used to filter packets arriving on a DLPI stream, particularly in raw or promiscuous modes, to reduce the number of packets delivered to user space to the minimum number of packets in which the application is interested.

OpenSS7 provides these two ipso-facto standard STREAMS modules. It also provides some useful modules not found in other implementations.

Specific module names provided by the various implementations are detailed in the specific porting section.


3.6 Support and Add-On Libraries

DLPI was intended to be used by applications programs directly using the getpmsg(2s), putpmsg(2s), read(2s), write(2s), and ioctl(2s) system calls and the interface definitions found in the sys/dlpi.h header file. Nevertheless, some implementations have provided user shared-object add-on libraries for use by DLPI applications programs that hide some of the more mundane tasks from the DLPI application programmer, and provide a functional, rather than system call, interface to DLPI DLS providers.

AIX provides a Generic Data Link Control (GDLC) interface that can be used by applications programs to access DLS providers using a common set of functions and structures. AIXlink/X.25 does not provide applications program shared-object add-on libraries.

HP-UX does not provide shared-object add-on libraries for use with DLPI.

Solaris, receently, has provided a libdlpi shared-object add-on library that provides a functional interface to the DLPI in a way similar to the way that the XTI Library provides a functional interface to the TPI. Solstice X.25 provides several libraries whose functions are intended on providing access to management and addressing information for the DLS user and are not used to directly interface to DLPI.

OpenSS7 provides all of the libraries provided by the others implementations with a set of libraries that are implemented to be compatible with their porting source equivalents.

See the libraries sub-section in each of the specific porting sections for more information on libraries.


3.7 Support and Management Utilities

All implementations provide some C-language programs and shell scripts for use in configuring, managing and trouble-shooting the implementation. Most of these programs are intended on being used from the command line or by shell scripts. One such program common to all implementations is the snoop(8) utility.

Although some utilities such as snoop(8) are common, AIX, AIXlink/X.25, HP-UX, Solaris and Solstice X.25 each provide their own set of utilities.

As with STREAMS utilities, OpenSS7 provides as many of these utilities as can be implemented using the available documentation for the utility.

See the utilities sub-section in each of the specific porting sections for more information on utilities.


3.8 Device and Driver Management

Most implementations support management of the DLPI implementation using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) of the IETF, using IETF-defined MIBs specific to each device class. No implementations currently document support for CMIP management.

OpenSS7 provides for SNMP management of the DLPI implementations using IETF MIBs, OpenSS7 Enterprise-specific MIBs, and CMIP management of the DLPI implementations using ISO/IEC GDMOs.

See the management sub-section in each of the specific porting sections for more information on management.


4 Porting from DLPI

This section includes general porting information when porting STREAMS drivers or modules, or DLPI applications from any environment supporting the DLPI to Linux Fast-STREAMS.

Use this section if you are porting from an environment other than those provided in the separate porting chapters, and when the environment from which you are porting does not closely match those for which directly support is provided in later chapters.


4.1 DLPI Driver Addressing


4.1.1 DLPI Driver Naming


4.1.2 DLPI PPA Selection

Some implementations provide a Style 2 DLS provider, some a Style 1 one. Style 2 DLPI Streams must be attached to a PPA before they can be used any further. Style 1 DLPI Streams are immediately available for use without attachment.

To determine whether the open Stream is a Style 1 or Style 2 provider, the DL_INFO_REQ primitive can be issued and the responding DL_INFO_ACK primitive examined. The dl_provider_style field contains DL_STYLE1 if the Stream is a Style 1 Stream that does not require attachemtn. When the field contains DL_STYLE2, the Stream is a Style 2 provider that requires attachment before use.


4.1.3 DLPI SAP Addressing


4.1.4 DLPI Primitive Addresses


4.1.5 DLPI Quality of Service Parameters

Most implementations of DLPI do not support quality of service parameters. OpenSS7 supports the standard DLPI quality of service parameters DL_QOS_CL_RANGE1, DL_QOS_CO_SEL1, DL_QOS_CL_RANGE1 and DL_QOS_CO_SEL1. If your implementation of DLPI supports quality of service parameters and those parameters are different from the standard DLPI quality of service parameters, they will need to be converted to the standard structure types and exchanges in primitives described by the DLPI standard.

Note that when DL_AUTO_XID and DL_AUTO_TEST flags are set in the dl_xidtest_flg field of the DL_BIND_REQ primitive, OpenSS7 DLPI drivers will perform any necessary XID or TEST DLPDU exchanges that are necessary to negotiate end-to-end parameters. Otherwise, available ranges are established by local management.


4.2 DLPI Driver Features


4.2.1 DLPI LAN Operation

4.2.1.1 DLPI Ethernet and SNAP Operation

4.2.1.2 DLPI LLC Type 1 Operation

4.2.1.3 DLPI LLC Type 2 Operation

4.2.1.4 DLPI LLC Type 3 Operation


4.2.2 DLPI WAN Operation


4.2.3 DLPI Driver Modes

4.2.3.1 DLPI Promiscuous Mode

Most implementations of DLPI support promiscious mode. Normally, the supported primitives DL_ATTACH_REQ, DL_BIND_REQ, DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ, DL_ENABMULTI_REQ, define the interface, physical address and broadcast address (MAC), service access point (SAP), subsequent service access point (SAP), and multicast or group addresses (MAC), for which packets are delivered to the DLS User. The promisuous mode primitives, DL_PROMISCON_REQ, DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ, act to provide a promiscous wildcard at various points in the link layer header defined by the foregoing primitives.

When DL_PROMISC_PHYS is specified, the Stream becomes promiscuous at the physical level. This means that all packets on the wire associated with the interface identified by the attached PPA will be indicated to the DLS User. This is the case regardless of the setting of the other promicious levels.

When DL_PROMISC_SAP is specified, the Stream becomes promiscuous at the SAP level. This means that all packets on the wire that match the physical address, and enabled broadcast, multicast or group addresses,20 regardless of the SAP that was bound with DL_BIND_REQ or DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ, will be delivered to the DLS User. This promiscuous level being set has no effect when DL_PROMISC_PHYS is also set.

When DL_PROMISC_MULTI is specified, the Stream becomes promiscuous at the broadcast, multicast and group address level. This means that all packets on the write that match the physical address, and any broadcast, multicast or group address, regardless of the addresses that have been enabled with DL_ENABMULTI_REQ, and matches enabled SAP for the Stream,21 will be delivered to the DLS User. This promiscuous level being set has no effect when DL_PROMISC_PHYS is also set.

4.2.3.2 DLPI Raw Mode

Most implementations of DLPI support a raw mode. The purpose of a raw mode is largely to permit monitoring applications, but also to permit the implementation of protocols not anticipated by the DLPI specifications. In raw mode, link-layer headers are not removed from the data payload of messages delivered to the DLPI User. Also, link-layer headers are not added by the DLS Provider to DLS User data submitted for transmission. This means that not only does the DLS User need to interpret link-layer headers on received messages itself, but it needs to create appropriate link-layer headers for any messages for transmission.

Raw mode is normally invoked with an input-output control. AIX and Solaris place a DLPI Stream into raw mode using an implemetnation-specific input-output control. HP-UX, in constrast, provides an implementation-specific value for the dl_service_mode member of the DL_BIND_REQ primitive, DL_HP_RAWDLS, that places a DLPI Stream into raw mode.

Once in raw mode, some implementations differ in how raw packets are delivered to the DLS User.

For Solaris, when placed into raw mode, packets are delivered to the DLS User using DL_DATA_IND primitives. Packets sent by the DLS User are expected to be DL_DATA_REQ primitives.

For AIX, when placed into raw mode, packets are delivered to the DLS User using DL_UNITDATA_IND primitives, however, the primitive contains no address fields and may be removed for AIX at some point, after which packets will be delivered to the DLS User using DL_DATA_IND primitives. Packets sent by the DLS User are expected to be DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitives containing no address or DL_DATA_REQ primitives.

For HP-UX, when placed into raw mode, packets are delivered to the DLS User using DL_HP_RAWDATA_IND extension primitives. Packets sent by the DLS User are expected to be DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ extension primitives.

4.2.3.3 DLPI LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

4.2.3.4 DLPI CSMA/CD Mode

4.2.3.5 DLPI Fast Path

4.2.3.6 DLPI Combined Mode


4.3 DLPI Primitives

In some cases provided by the DLPI standard, the primitive interface may be unsuitable in comparison to the input-output control interface. Under STREAMS, the identity of, and permissions afforded, the user passing the M_PROTO or M_PCPROTO primitive to the Stream are not provided by the put message, putpmsg(2s), system call. On the other hand, the input-output control, ioctl(2s), system call both identifies and provides permissions for the invoking user. DLPI primitives of concern in this regard are:

Another approach is to not permit processes with insufficient privilege to open the DLPI driver in the first place. How this problem or issue is dealt with by specific implementations has an impact on the portability of DLPI applications programs.

DL_ATTACH_REQ

Of primary concern to porting is the specification of the dl_ppa field in this primitive. DLS providers are allowed to manage their own Physical Point of Attachment (PPA) space in implementation specific manners. DLPI cautions applications to obtain the PPA from passed in arguments or a management call and pass the PPA opaquely to DLPI. This is not always the case. Also, unfortunately the management subroutines available to the application for this purpose are nowhere standardized.

DL_BIND_REQ
DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ
DL_DATA_REQ
DL_DATA_IND
DL_UNITDATA_REQ
DL_UNITDATA_IND
DL_PROMISCON_REQ
DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ

Not all implementations nor all DLS providers support these primitives. This does not mean that they do not support promiscuous modes on these devices, it just means that some other mechanism is used to place devices in promiscuous mode and to detect that they are in promiscous mode.

Normally these primitives are supported for DLS providers with a MAC type of DL_ETHER.

DL_ENABMULTI_REQ
DL_DISABMULTI_REQ

Not all implementations nor all DLS provider support these primitives. This does not mean that they do not support multicast addresses on these devices, it just means that some other mechanism is used to manage multicast addresses on these devices.


4.4 DLPI Input-Output Controls

Input-Output Control are not standardized. However, most implementations provide some sort of input-output control that performs the following functions:


4.5 DLPI Drivers and Modules


4.6 DLPI Libraries


4.7 DLPI Utilities


4.8 DLPI Management


4.9 DLPI Summary


5 Porting from AIX

This section is applicable to later releases of the AIX operating system which is IBM’s UNIX System V Release 4 derived version of the UNIX operating system. DLPI is documented primarily in the “Communications Programming Concepts, Chapter 2, Data Link Provider Interface Implemetnation” and the “Technical Reference: Communications, Volume 1, Chapter 2, Data Link Provider Interface (DLPI)” documentation for the AIX operating system. Use this section when porting DLPI drivers, modules and applications from base AIX to Linux.


5.1 AIX Driver Addressing

The AIX implementation of the DLPI interface provides a Style 2 DLS provider that supports both connectionless, DL_CLDLS, and connection-oriented, DL_CODLS, data link service modes. AIX also supports a combined connectionless and connection-oriented mode: see, AIX Combined Mode.


5.1.1 AIX Driver Naming


5.1.2 AIX PPA Selection


5.1.3 AIX SAP Addressing


5.1.4 AIX Primitive Addresses


5.1.5 AIX Quality of Service Parameters


5.2 AIX Driver Features


5.2.1 AIX LAN Operation

5.2.1.1 AIX Ethernet and SNAP Operation

5.2.1.2 AIX LLC Type 1 Operation

5.2.1.3 AIX LLC Type 2 Operation

5.2.1.4 AIX LLC Type 3 Operation


5.2.2 AIX WAN Operation


5.2.3 AIX Driver Modes


5.2.3.1 AIX Promiscuous Mode

AIX supports a promiscuous mode using the standard DLPI primitives, DL_PROMISCON_REQ and DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ. AIX supports all three promiscuous levels, DL_PROMISC_PHYS, DL_PROMISC_SAP and DL_PROMISC_MULTI, for these primitives. There are some minor compatibility issues with the DL_PROMISCON_REQ primitive (see AIX DL_PROMISCON_REQ).


5.2.3.2 AIX Raw Mode

AIX supports a raw mode. Setting a DLPI Stream to raw mode consists of using the DL_PKT_FORMAT input-output control to set the packet format for the Stream to NS_INCLUDE_MAC. When set to raw mode, the MAC and LLC link-layer headers are both placed in the data portion of the message.

Messages delivered to the DLS user are delivered as DL_UNITDATA_IND primitives, but at some point might be restricted to DL_DATA_IND primitives (i.e. just the M_DATA message block). DLS Users should be prepared to receive both. Both can be handled easily by simply discarding any M_PROTO message block containing a DL_UNITDATA_IND primitive and only only processing the attached M_DATA message block.

Messages sent to the DLS provider may be sent as DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitives, but at some point might be restricted to DL_DATA_REQ primitives (i.e. just the M_DATA message block). DLS Users should be prepared to send either. The destination address fo the DL_UNITDATA_REQ message block must be completed as normal, however, it is not used to create a link-layer header for the final message, and the attached M_DATA message block must contain the link-layer header including the MAC addresses.

OpenSS7 provides full source-level compatibility with this mode by providing a source-compatible DL_PKG_FORMAT input-output control that accepts the NS_INCLDUE_MAC format. When the raw format is set using this input-output control, an AIX compataible raw mode is applied to the Stream.


5.2.3.3 AIX LLC2 Mode

AIX supports an LLC2 mode. Setting a DLPI Stream to LLC2 mode consists of using the DL_PKG_FORMAT input-output control to set the packet format for the Stream to NS_INCLUDE_LLC. When set to LLC2 mode, the LLC link-layer headers are placed in the data portion of the message. Only the MAC addresses are removed or inserted when messages are received or transmitted on the media.

Messages delivered to the DLS user are delivered as DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitives. The LLC link-layer headers are included in the M_DATA portion of the primitive. The destination and source addresses contained in the M_PROTO portion of the DL_UNITDATA_IND primtive contain only the MAC address and do not contain the DSAP, SSAP or SNAP portion.

Messages sent to the DLS provider are sent as DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitives. The M_DATA portion of the primitive must contain the LLC link-layer headers. The destination and source addresses contained in the M_PROTO portion of the DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitive contain only the MAC address and do not contain the DSAP, SSAP or SNAP portion.

OpenSS7 provides full source-lvel compatibility with this mode by providing a source-compatible DL_PKG_FORMAT input-outpu control that accepts the NS_INCLUDE_LLC format. When the LLC format is set using this input-output control, an AIX compatible LLC2 mode is applied to the Stream.


5.2.3.4 AIX CSMA/CD Mode


5.2.3.5 AIX Fast Path

AIX does not provide fast path.


5.2.3.6 AIX Combined Mode

AIX extends the standard DLPI specification by permitting both DL_CLDLS and DL_CODLS to be specified in the dl_service_mode field of the DL_BIND_REQ primitive by logically OR’ing the two values together. (The DL_CLDLS, DL_CODLS and DL_ACLDLS values may be logically OR’ed together in the dl_service_mode field of the DL_INFO_ACK primitive.) Once the bind has completed in this manner, both connectionless and connection-oriented messages can be exchanged for the Stream.


5.3 AIX Primitives

AIX widely supports connectionless and connection-oriented DLIP standard primitives and provides no extension primitive. Minor extensions are provided by extending some of the standard DLPI primitives. Other extensions are provided with implementation-specific input-output controls.


5.3.1 AIX Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by AIX:

The following XID and TEST primitives are supported by AIX:

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by AIX:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are supported by AIX:


5.3.2 AIX Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by AIX:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by AIX:


5.3.3 AIX Extension Primitives

AIX does not provide any extension primitives.


5.4 AIX Input-Output Controls

AIX provides a number of implementation-specific input-output controls that are defined in the sys/dlpi_aix.h header file. Input-output controls that take an argument longer than a small integer or that take a pointer to a buffer are required to use the I_STR(7) (see streamio(7)) STREAMS input-output control (however, OpenSS7 also supports transparent input-output controls).

Implementation-specific input-output controls provided by AIX are as follows:

DL_PKT_FORMATset the packet format.
DL_INPUT_RESOLVEregister input address resolution callback.
DL_OUTPUT_RESOLVEregister output address resolution callback.
DL_ROUTEdisable, query or assign a source route.
DL_TUNE_LLCquery or alter tunable LLC parameters.
DL_ZERO_STATSreset local or global statistics.
DL_SET_REMADDRset remote address for XID/TEST.

Note that OpenSS7 documents these input-output controls in detail in the dlpi_ioctl(4) manual page.


5.5 AIX Drivers and Modules


5.6 AIX Libraries


5.7 AIX Utilities


5.8 AIX Management


5.9 AIX Summary


6 Porting from AIXlink/X.25


6.1 AIXlink/X.25 Driver Addressing


6.1.1 AIXlink/X.25 Driver Naming


6.1.2 AIXlink/X.25 PPA Selection


6.1.3 AIXlink/X.25 SAP Addressing


6.1.4 AIXlink/X.25 Primitive Addresses


6.1.5 AIXlink/X.25 Quality of Service Parameters


6.2 AIXlink/X.25 Driver Features


6.2.1 AIXlink/X.25 LAN Operation

6.2.1.1 AIXlink/X.25 Ethernet and SNAP Operation

6.2.1.2 AIXlink/X.25 LLC Type 1 Operation

6.2.1.3 AIXlink/X.25 LLC Type 2 Operation

6.2.1.4 AIXlink/X.25 LLC Type 3 Operation


6.2.2 AIXlink/X.25 WAN Operation


6.2.3 AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes

6.2.3.1 AIXlink/X.25 Promiscuous Mode

AIXlink/X.25 does not support promiscuous mode and does not support the DL_PROMISCON_REQ or DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ primitives.

6.2.3.2 AIXlink/X.25 Raw Mode

AIXlink/X.25 does not support a raw mode.

6.2.3.3 AIXlink/X.25 LLC2 Mode

AIXlink/X.25 does not support an LLC2 mode.

6.2.3.4 AIXlink/X.25 CSMA/CD Mode

6.2.3.5 AIXlink/X.25 Fast Path

6.2.3.6 AIXlink/X.25 Combined Mode


6.3 AIXlink/X.25 Primitives

6.3.1 AIXlink/X.25 Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by AIXlink/X.25:

DL_BIND_REQ
DL_BIND_ACK
DL_ERROR_ACK
DL_INFO_REQ
DL_INFO_ACK
DL_OK_ACK
DL_UNBIND_REQ

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are supported by AIXlink/X.25:

DL_CONNECT_REQ
DL_CONNECT_CON
DL_DISCONNECT_REQ
DL_DISCONNECT_IND
DL_RESET_REQ
DL_RESET_IND
DL_RESET_RES
DL_RESET_CON

6.3.2 AIXlink/X.25 Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by AIXlink/X.25:

The following XID and TEST primitives are not supported by AIXlink/X.25:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are not supported by AIXlink/X.25:

The following connectionless mode primitives are not supported by AIXlink/X.25:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by AIXlink/X.25:

6.3.3 AIXlink/X.25 Primitive Porting Considerations

6.3.4 AIXlink/X.25 Extension Primitives

AIXlink/X.25 does not provide any extension primitives.


6.4 AIXlink/X.25 Input-Output Controls

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


6.5 AIXlink/X.25 Drivers and Modules


6.6 AIXlink/X.25 Libraries


6.7 AIXlink/X.25 Utilities


6.8 AIXlink/X.25 Management


6.9 AIXlink/X.25 Summary


7 Porting from HP-UX


7.1 HP-UX Driver Addressing


7.1.1 HP-UX Driver Naming


7.1.2 HP-UX PPA Selection


7.1.3 HP-UX SAP Addressing


7.1.4 HP-UX Primitive Addresses


7.1.5 HP-UX Quality of Service Parameters


7.2 HP-UX Driver Features


7.2.1 HP-UX LAN Operation

7.2.1.1 HP-UX Ethernet and SNAP Operation

7.2.1.2 HP-UX LLC Type 1 Operation

7.2.1.3 HP-UX LLC Type 2 Operation

7.2.1.4 HP-UX LLC Type 3 Operation


7.2.2 HP-UX WAN Operation


7.2.3 HP-UX Driver Modes

7.2.3.1 HP-UX Promiscuous Mode

7.2.3.2 HP-UX Raw Mode

HP-UX provides support for a raw mode where the link-layer headers and included in packets both delivered to the DLS User and accepted from the DLS User. The HP-UX raw mode is entered by setting the dl_service_mode field of the DL_BIND_REQ primitive to DL_HP_RAWDLS.

When raw mode has been enabled, all packets delivered to the DLS User are delivered as DL_HP_RAWDATA_IND primitives; all packets accepted from the DLS User are DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ primitives.

This approach differs from other approaches in several ways:

OpenSS7 supports the HP-UX DL_HP_RAWDLS service mode as well as the DL_HP_RAWDATA_IND and DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ primitives in support of the porting of DLPI drivers, modules and applications programs from HP-UX to Linux.

7.2.3.3 HP-UX LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

HP-UX supports LLC2 directly using the DLPI driver and, therefore, does not require an LLC2 mode.

OpenSS7 also supports LLC2 directly using the DLPI driver permitting DLPI drivers, modules and applications to be ported from HP-UX to Linux without the need for an LLC2 mode.

7.2.3.4 HP-UX CSMA/CD Mode

7.2.3.5 HP-UX Fast Path

7.2.3.6 HP-UX Combined Mode


7.3 HP-UX Primitives

7.3.1 HP-UX Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by HP-UX:

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by HP-UX:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are supported by HP-UX:

7.3.2 HP-UX Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by HP-UX:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by HP-UX:

7.3.3 HP-UX Primitive Porting Considerations

DL_PROMISCON_REQ

OpenSS7 supports this primitive being issued multiple times by the DLS users for the same promiscuous level without generating a fatal or non-fatal error. HP-UX documentation is silent on the matter.

Care should be taken when porting HP-UX drivers, modules and applications to OpenSS7 that the DLS user does not rely upon the DLS provider returning an error should this primitive be issued multiple times for the same promiscuous level.

DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ

OpenSS7 supports this primitive being issued multiple times by the DLS users for the same promiscuous level without generating a fatal or non-fatal error. HP-UX documentation is silent on the matter.

Care should be taken when porting HP-UX drivers, modules and applications to OpenSS7 that the DLS user does not rely upon the DLS provider returning an error should this primitive be issued multiple times for the same promiscuous level.

7.3.4 HP-UX Extension Primitives

HP-UX provides the following extension primitives:

DL_HP_GET_64BIT_STATS_ACK
DL_HP_GET_64BIT_STATS_REQ
DL_HP_HW_RESET_REQ
DL_HP_LINK_DOWN_IND
DL_HP_LINK_UP_IND
DL_HP_MULTICAST_LIST_ACK
DL_HP_MULTICAST_LIST_REQ
DL_HP_NOTIFY_EVENT_REQ
DL_HP_PPA_ACK
DL_HP_PPA_REQ
DL_HP_RAWDATA_IND
DL_HP_RAWDATA_REQ
DL_HP_RESET_STATS_REQ

HP-UX provides the following connection-oriented mode extension primitives:

DL_HP_CLEAR_LOCAL_BUSY_REQ
DL_HP_CLEAR_STATS_REQ
DL_HP_INFO_ACK
DL_HP_INFO_REQ
DL_HP_SET_ACK_THRESHOLD_REQ
DL_HP_SET_ACK_TO_REQ
DL_HP_SET_BUSY_TO_REQ
DL_HP_SET_LOCAL_BUSY_REQ
DL_HP_SET_LOCAL_WIN_REQ
DL_HP_SET_MAX_RETRIES_REQ
DL_HP_SET_P_TO_REQ
DL_HP_SET_REJ_TO_REQ
DL_HP_SET_REMOTE_WIN_REQ
DL_HP_SET_SEND_ACK_TO_REQ

7.4 HP-UX Input-Output Controls

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


7.5 HP-UX Drivers and Modules


7.6 HP-UX Libraries


7.7 HP-UX Utilities


7.8 HP-UX Management


7.9 HP-UX Summary


8 Porting from IRIX

IRIX is the UNIX System V Release 4.2 based operating system which is a product of Silicon Graphics Inc., or just SGI.


8.1 IRIX Driver Addressing


8.1.1 IRIX Driver Naming


8.1.2 IRIX PPA Selection


8.1.3 IRIX SAP Addressing

Directly from the IRIX manual page:22

The normal mode of operation is when a bind, DL_BIND_REQ, is performed with the value of the SAP, dl_sap, information being in the rante 0x02 to 0xFE, inclusive (one-octet, even-value). This is the same as specified under ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2) LLC, and is the onl mode of operation fro connection-oriented (i.e. LLC Type 2) service mode. The Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) als uses this mode of operation. The DLSAP address for normal mode has the following format:

struct llc_dlsap {
    u_char dl_mac[6];  /* hardware address */
    u_char dl_sap;     /* LLC SAP */
};

The DLSAP address may be modified through DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ primitive when the SNAP is used to extend the LLC header. The extended SNAP DLSAP addresse have the following format:

struct llc_snap_dlsap {
    u_char dl_mac[6];    /* hardware address */
    u_char dl_sap;       /* SNAP sap: 0xAA */
    u_char dl_oui[3];    /* OUI information */
    u_char dl_proto[2];  /* protocol ID */
};

DLS users should use the llc_dlsap format in constructing the DL_UNITDATA_REQ primitive and it is the DLS User responsibility to put the OUI information and protocol ID in front of their data. Upon receipt of DL_UNITDATA_IND, the DLSAP addresses are also of llc_dlsap format. It is the DLS User responsibility to skip the OUI information and protocol ID for the user data.

The DLSAP address may also be modified if source routing is used for Token Ring networks through TEST and/or XID primitives. The source routing information field (rif) is appended to the end of the llc_dlsap format. The DL_CONNECT_REQ, DL_CONNECT_IND, DL_CONNECT_RES, DL_CONNECT_CON, primitives should also use this llc_sri_dlsap format when source routing information is present. The extended SRI DLSAP addresses have the following format:

struct llc_sri_dlsap {
    u_char dl_mac[6];    /* hardware address */
    u_char dl_sap;       /* LLC SAP */
    u_char dl_rif;       /* start of rif */
};

The Ethernet mode of operation occurs when a bind is performed for two bytes (the high byte being non-zero). When this occurs, the binding driver will be sent packets for the Ethernet types registered for.

The DLSAP address for Ethernet mode has the following format:

struct llc_eth_dlsap {
    u_char dl_mac[6];    /* hardware address */
    u_short dl_sap;      /* Ethernet SAP */
};

8.1.4 IRIX Primitive Addresses


8.1.5 IRIX Quality of Service Parameters


8.2 IRIX Driver Features


8.2.1 IRIX LAN Operation

8.2.1.1 IRIX Ethernet and SNAP Operation

8.2.1.2 IRIX LLC Type 1 Operation

As will all of the other implementations, LLC Type 1 operation is supported.

8.2.1.3 IRIX LLC Type 2 Operation

IRIX is another of the implementations that supports LLC Type 2 directly, using the DL_CODLS data link service and the associated connection-oriented mode service primitives.

8.2.1.4 IRIX LLC Type 3 Operation

IRIX does not support LLC Type 3, as is true for the other UNIX implementations.


8.2.2 IRIX WAN Operation


8.2.3 IRIX Driver Modes

8.2.3.1 IRIX Promiscuous Mode

8.2.3.2 IRIX Raw Mode

8.2.3.3 IRIX LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

IRIX supports LLC2 directly using the DLPI driver and, therefore, does not require an LLC2 mode.

OpenSS7 also supports LLC2 directly using the DLPI driver permitting DLPI drivers, modules and applications to be ported from IRIX to Linux without the need for an LLC2 mode.

8.2.3.4 IRIX CSMA/CD Mode

8.2.3.5 IRIX Fast Path

8.2.3.6 IRIX Combined Mode


8.3 IRIX Primitives

8.3.1 IRIX Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by IRIX:

DL_INFO_REQ
DL_INFO_ACK
DL_ERROR_ACK
DL_OK_ACK
DL_ATTACH_REQ
DL_DETACH_REQ
DL_BIND_REQ
DL_BIND_ACK
DL_SUBS_BIND_REQ
DL_SUBS_BIND_ACK
DL_SUBS_UNBIND_REQ
DL_ENABMULTI_REQ
DL_DISABMULTI_REQ
DL_PHYS_ADDR_REQ
DL_PHYS_ADDR_ACK
DL_SET_PHYS_ADDR_ACK
DL_XID_REQ
DL_XID_IND
DL_XID_RES
DL_XID_CON
DL_TEST_REQ
DL_TEST_IND
DL_TEST_RES
DL_TEST_CON

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by IRIX:

DL_UNITDATA_REQ
DL_UNITDATA_IND
DL_UDERROR_IND

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are supported by IRIX:

DL_TOKEN_REQ
DL_TOKEN_ACK
DL_CONNECT_REQ
DL_CONNECT_IND
DL_CONNECT_RES
DL_CONNECT_CON
DL_DATA_REQ
DL_DATA_IND
DL_RESET_REQ
DL_RESET_IND
DL_RESET_RES
DL_RESET_CON
DL_DISCONNECT_REQ
DL_DISCONNECT_IND

8.3.2 IRIX Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by IRIX:

The following connectionless mode primitives are not supported by IRIX:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by IRIX:

8.3.3 IRIX Extension Primitives

IRIX provides no extension primitives.


8.4 IRIX Input-Output Controls

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


8.5 IRIX Drivers and Modules


8.6 IRIX Libraries


8.7 IRIX Utilities


8.8 IRIX Management


8.9 IRIX Summary


9 Porting from OSF

Here the reference to “OSF” refers to Digtal UNIX and Tru64 UNIX and all those other names that OSF derivatives have been called.


9.1 OSF Driver Addressing

Each DLPI user must establish an identity to communicate with other data link users. This identity consists of the following pieces of information:


9.1.1 OSF Driver Naming


9.1.2 OSF PPA Selection

Physical attachment identification identifies the physical medium over which the DLS user communicates. The importance of identifying the physical medium is particularly evident on systems that are attached to multiple physical media.

The PPA is the point at which the system attaches itself to the physical communications medium. All communication on that physical medium funnels through the PPA. On systems where DLS provider supports more than one physical medium, the DLS user must identify the medium through which it will communicate. A PPA is identified by a unique PPA identifier.

OSF only supports the Style 2 provider because it is more suitable for supporting large numbers of PPAs.

To establish a list of available PPAs, OSF provides the ND_GET input-output control. This input-output control is a general purpose I_STR(7) (see streamio(7)) input-output control that takes a buffer containing a identifier string (in this case “dl_ifnames”) and returns a output string in the same buffer. The output string looks something like:

sscc0 (PPA 1) ln0 (PPA 2) dsy9 (PPA 3) dsy1 (PPA 4) sl0 (PPA 5) sl1 (PPA 6) lo0

The ND_GET input-output control is defined as:

#define ND_GET (('N' << 8) + 0)

9.1.3 OSF SAP Addressing

The DLS user must register with the DLS provider so that the provider can deliver protocol data units destined for that user.

The format of the DLSAP address is an unsigned character array containing the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses followed by the bound Service Access Point (SAP). The SAP is usually two bytes in the case of Ethernet, or one byte in the case of ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2). The one exception is when DL_HIERARCHICAL_BIND is processed. In that case, the DLSAP address consists of the MAC address, the SNAP SAP (0xAA), and a five-byte SNAP.


9.1.4 OSF Primitive Addresses

The format of the DLSAP address is an unsigned character array containing the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses followed by the bound Service Access Point (SAP). The SAP is usually two bytes in the case of Ethernet, or one byte in the case of ISO/IEC 8802-2 (IEEE 802.2). The one exception is when DL_HIERARCHICAL_BIND is processed. In that case, the DLSAP address consists of the MAC address, the SNAP SAP (0xAA), and a five-byte SNAP.


9.1.5 OSF Quality of Service Parameters

OSF does not support quality of service parameters.


9.2 OSF Driver Features


9.2.1 OSF LAN Operation

9.2.1.1 OSF Ethernet and SNAP Operation

9.2.1.2 OSF LLC Type 1 Operation

OSF dlb(7) driver supports LLC Type 1 and Ethernet operation in the usual manner.

9.2.1.3 OSF LLC Type 2 Operation

OSF is one of the DLPI implementations that does not directly support LLC Type 2 operation.

9.2.1.4 OSF LLC Type 3 Operation

OSF, as the other UNIX derivatives, does not directly support LLC Type 3 operation.


9.2.2 OSF WAN Operation


9.2.3 OSF Driver Modes

9.2.3.1 OSF Promiscuous Mode

It is unclears whether the dlb(7) driver supports promiscuous mode. OSF does not document input-output controls to place DLPI interfaces into promiscuous mode and does not support the DL_PROMISCON_REQ and DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ primitive. Chances are they recommend the sockets DLI interface instead.

9.2.3.2 OSF Raw Mode

It is unclear whether the dlb(7) driver supports an Raw Mode. OSF does not document input-output controls to place DLPI interfaces into raw mode. Chances are they recommend the sockets DLI interface instead.

9.2.3.3 OSF LLC2 Mode

Although OSF does not directly support LLC Type 2 operation, it is unclear whether the dlb(7) driver supports an LLC2 Mode. OSF does not document input-output controls to place DLPI interfaces into LLC2 mode. Chances are they recommend the sockets DLI interface instead.

9.2.3.4 OSF CSMA/CD Mode

It is unclears whether the dlb(7) driver supports CSMA/CD mode. OSF does not document input-output controls to place DLPI interfaces into CSMA/CD mode. Chances are they recommend the sockets DLI interface instead.

9.2.3.5 OSF Fast Path

OSF does not document a Fast Path. One of the reasons for this is that the OSF DLPI driver, dlb(7), is really just a bridge to the underlying BSD interfaces. Therefore, upper layer protocols within the BSD stack, such as IP, do not require a fast path from DLPI.

9.2.3.6 OSF Combined Mode

OSF does not support connection-oriented mode, far less a combined connectionless and connection-oriented mode.


9.3 OSF Primitives

9.3.1 OSF Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by OSF:

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by OSF:

9.3.2 OSF Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by OSF:

The following connectionless mode primitives are not supported by OSF:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are not supported by OSF:

The following acknowledged-connectionless mode primitives are not supported by OSF:

9.3.3 OSF Extension Primitives

OSF does not provide any extension primitives.


9.4 OSF Input-Output Controls

OSF input-output controls are not well documented.

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


9.5 OSF Drivers and Modules

OSF basically provides a similar type of module to that provided by OpenSS7: it is a DLPI driver that bridges between STREAMS and the underlying BSD network device interfaces that are provided by OSF’s basic BSD kernel. Therefore, the driver, dlb(7), is basically organized into a top-half and bottom-half, where the top-half is the DLPI STREAMS driver, and the BSD network device implementation is the bottom-half.

Unfortunately, OSF DLPI support is somewhat lacking compared to others. The richer interface is the sockets-based (and BSD-based) DLI interface, which is roughly equivalent to the packet-mode sockets in Linux. If you are porting a DLI application, you are in the wrong place. DLI applications should be ported to native Linux sockets rather than DLPI.


9.6 OSF Libraries

OSF does not provide any libraries or utilities (other than basic STREAMS facilities) in support of DLPI applications.


9.7 OSF Utilities

Because OSF implements a bridging driver, it provides few DLPI specific utilities and administration tools. Most of the tools that are provided are BSD-style management programs and scripts intended on maintaining the BSD networking kernel.


9.8 OSF Management

Management of the OSF networking is BSD-based and managed largely via SNMP.


9.9 OSF Summary

In general, porting OSF DLPI applications to Linux should pose little difficulty. The OSF DLPI implementations is very restricted in scope and features and any DLPI driver, module, or application should port directly to OpenSS7 without issue. All of the addressing and modes are supported buy Linux Fast-STREAMS. Special add-on packages (probably based on the Spider implemetnation) are used for X.25. See the OpenSS7 X.25 porting guide for more information.

One simplification provided by the OpenSS7 implementation is that the PPA associated with a given network interface is the same as the IETF Interface MIB ifIndex associated with that interface. It is not necessary to use the ND_GET in the fashion of OSF to collect information about the mapping of interface names to interface indices. Either the SNMP functions can be used, or the input-output controls documented in netdevice(7) can be used.


10 Porting from PowerMAX

PowerMAX OS is the SVR 4.2MP based operating system provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation.


10.1 PowerMAX Driver Addressing


10.1.1 PowerMAX Driver Naming


10.1.2 PowerMAX PPA Selection


10.1.3 PowerMAX SAP Addressing

PowerMAX provides the symbol PROMISCUOUS_SAP that once bound to acts as though DL_PROMISCON_REQ was successful at the DL_PROMISC_SAP level.


10.1.4 PowerMAX Primitive Addresses


10.1.5 PowerMAX Quality of Service Parameters


10.2 PowerMAX Driver Features


10.2.1 PowerMAX LAN Operation

10.2.1.1 PowerMAX Ethernet and SNAP Operation

10.2.1.2 PowerMAX LLC Type 1 Operation

The PowerMAX DLPI driver supports LLC Type 1 and Ethernet operation in the usual manner.

10.2.1.3 PowerMAX LLC Type 2 Operation

PowerMAX is one of the DLPI implementations that does not directly support LLC Type 2 operation. However, it does not appear to have an LLC2 Mode necessary for use by LLC2 DLS users. This might just be a documentation oversight. OpenSS7 provides the normal SVR 4.2 DLIOCLLC2MODE input-output control for setting the LLC2 Mode.

10.2.1.4 PowerMAX LLC Type 3 Operation

PowerMAX, as the other UNIX derivatives, does not directly support LLC Type 3 operation.


10.2.2 PowerMAX WAN Operation


10.2.3 PowerMAX Driver Modes

10.2.3.1 PowerMAX Promiscuous Mode

PowerMAX provides the symbol PROMISCUOUS_SAP that once bound to acts as though DL_PROMISCON_REQ was successful at the DL_PROMISC_SAP level. The input-output contol command, DLIOCSPROMISC can be used to set the Stream as promiscuous at the DL_PROMISC_PHYS level. The input-output control command, DLIOCADDMULTI can be used to set the Stream as promiscuous at the DL_PROMISC_MULTI level, but it needs to be executed once for each known multicast or group address.

10.2.3.2 PowerMAX Raw Mode

PowerMAX does not appear to have an Raw Mode. That is, it does not document the availablity of the DLIOCRAWMODE input-output control command used by SVR4.2 to toggle the Raw Mode. This might just be a documentation oversight, in which case, OpenSS7 provides one anyway.

10.2.3.3 PowerMAX LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

PowerMAX does not directly support LLC Type 2 operation. Nevertheless, it does not appear to have an LLC2 Mode. That is, it does not document the availability of the DLIOCLLC2MODE input-output control command.

10.2.3.4 PowerMAX CSMA/CD Mode

PowerMAX documents that the CSMA/CD Mode can be toggled using the usual SVR 4.2 DLIOCCSMACDMODE input-output control.

10.2.3.5 PowerMAX Fast Path

PowerMAX does not document a Fast Path.

10.2.3.6 PowerMAX Combined Mode


10.3 PowerMAX Primitives

10.3.1 PowerMAX Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by PowerMAX:

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by PowerMAX:

10.3.2 PowerMAX Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by PowerMAX:

The following connectionless mode primitives are not supported by PowerMAX:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are not supported by PowerMAX:

The following acknowledged-connectionless mode primitives are not supported by PowerMAX:

10.3.3 PowerMAX Extension Primitives

PowerMAX does not provide any extension primitives.


10.4 PowerMAX Input-Output Controls

IRIX supports the rather typical set of SVR 4.2 data link input-output controls as follows:

DLIOCSMIBSet MIB.
DLIOCGMIBGet MIB.
DLIOCSENADDRSet Ethernet address.
DLIOCGENADDRGet Ethernet address.
DLIOCSLPCFLGSet local packet copy flag.
DLIOCGLPCFLGGet local packet copy flag.
DLIOCSPROMISCToggle promiscuous state.
DLIOCGPROMISCGet promiscuous state.
DLIOCADDMULTIAdd multicast address.
DLIOCDELMULTIDelete multicast address.
DLIOCGETMULTIGet multicast address list.
DLIOCDISABLEDisable controller.
DLIOCENABLEEnable controller.
DLIOCRESETReset controller.
DLIOCCSMACDMODEToggle CSMA-CD mode.

Strangely enough, the DLIOCLLC2MODE and DLIOCRAWMODE input-output controls are not documented.

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


10.5 PowerMAX Drivers and Modules


10.6 PowerMAX Libraries


10.7 PowerMAX Utilities


10.8 PowerMAX Management


10.9 PowerMAX Summary


11 Porting from Solaris


11.1 Solaris Driver Addressing


11.1.1 Solaris Driver Naming


11.1.2 Solaris PPA Selection


11.1.3 Solaris SAP Addressing


11.1.4 Solaris Primitive Addresses


11.1.5 Solaris Quality of Service Parameters


11.2 Solaris Driver Features


11.2.1 Solaris LAN Operation

11.2.1.1 Solaris Ethernet and SNAP Operation

11.2.1.2 Solaris LLC Type 1 Operation

11.2.1.3 Solaris LLC Type 2 Operation

11.2.1.4 Solaris LLC Type 3 Operation


11.2.2 Solaris WAN Operation


11.2.3 Solaris Driver Modes

11.2.3.1 Solaris Promiscuous Mode

11.2.3.2 Solaris Raw Mode

11.2.3.3 Solaris LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

11.2.3.4 Solaris CSMA/CD Mode

11.2.3.5 Solaris Fast Path

11.2.3.6 Solaris Combined Mode


11.3 Solaris Primitives

11.3.1 Solaris Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by Solaris:

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by Solaris:

The following connectionless-oriented mode primitives are supported by Solaris:

11.3.2 Solaris Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by Solaris:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by Solaris:

11.3.3 Solaris Primitive Porting Considerations

DL_PROMISCON_REQ

OpenSS7 supports this primitive being issued multiple times by the DLS users for the same promiscuous level without generating a fatal or non-fatal error. Solaris documentation is silent on the matter.

Care should be taken when porting Solaris drivers, modules and applications to OpenSS7 that the DLS user does not rely upon the DLS provider returning an error should this primitive be issued multiple times for the same promiscuous level.

DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ

OpenSS7 supports this primitive being issued multiple times by the DLS users for the same promiscuous level without generating a fatal or non-fatal error. Solaris documentation is silent on the matter.

Care should be taken when porting Solaris drivers, modules and applications to OpenSS7 that the DLS user does not rely upon the DLS provider returning an error should this primitive be issued multiple times for the same promiscuous level.

11.3.4 Solaris Extension Primitives

Solaris provides the following extension primitives:


11.4 Solaris Input-Output Controls

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


11.5 Solaris Drivers and Modules


11.6 Solaris Libraries


11.7 Solaris Utilities


11.8 Solaris Management


11.9 Solaris Summary


12 Porting from Solstice X.25


12.1 Solstice X.25 Driver Addressing


12.1.1 Solstice X.25 Driver Naming


12.1.2 Solstice X.25 PPA Selection


12.1.3 Solstice X.25 SAP Addressing


12.1.4 Solstice X.25 Primitive Addresses


12.1.5 Solstice X.25 Quality of Service Parameters


12.2 Solstice X.25 Driver Features


12.2.1 Solstice X.25 LAN Operation

12.2.1.1 Solstice X.25 Ethernet and SNAP Operation

12.2.1.2 Solstice X.25 LLC Type 1 Operation

12.2.1.3 Solstice X.25 LLC Type 2 Operation

12.2.1.4 Solstice X.25 LLC Type 3 Operation


12.2.2 Solstice X.25 WAN Operation


12.2.3 Solstice X.25 Driver Modes

12.2.3.1 Solstice X.25 Promiscuous Mode

12.2.3.2 Solstice X.25 Raw Mode

12.2.3.3 Solstice X.25 LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

12.2.3.4 Solstice X.25 CSMA/CD Mode

12.2.3.5 Solstice X.25 Fast Path

12.2.3.6 Solstice X.25 Combined Mode


12.3 Solstice X.25 Primitives

12.3.1 Solstice X.25 Supported Primitives

The following primitives are supported by Solstice X.25:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are supported by Solstice X.25:

12.3.2 Solstice X.25 Unsupported Primitives

The following primitives are not supported by Solstice X.25:

The following connectionless mode primitives are not supported by Solstice X.25:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by Solstice X.25:

12.3.3 Solstice X.25 Primitive Porting Considerations

DL_PROMISCON_REQ

Solstice X.25 does not support this primitive. OpenSS7 supports this primitive even for DLS providers that do not support or are not bound in a connectionless mode.

Care should be taken when porting Solstice X.25 DLPI drivers, modules or applications to OpenSS7 that the DLS User does not reply upon the DLS provider returning a non-fatal error in the event that this primitive is issued.

DL_PROMISCOFF_REQ

Solstice X.25 does not support this primitive. OpenSS7 supports this primitive even for DLS providers that do not support or are not bound in a connectionless mode.

Care should be taken when porting Solstice X.25 DLPI drivers, modules or applications to OpenSS7 that the DLS User does not reply upon the DLS provider returning a non-fatal error in the event that this primitive is issued.

12.3.4 Solstice X.25 Extension Primitives

There are no extension primitives for Solstice X.25.


12.4 Solstice X.25 Input-Output Controls

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


12.5 Solstice X.25 Drivers and Modules


12.6 Solstice X.25 Libraries


12.7 Solstice X.25 Utilities


12.8 Solstice X.25 Management


12.9 Solstice X.25 Summary


13 Porting from SVR4.2

Here, SVR4.2 refers to “UNIX System V Release 4.2 MP,” and any number of UNIX variants based on SVR 4.2 MP, such as UnixWare 1.0, UnixWare 2.0, UnixWare 2.1, SUPER-UX Release 9.2, UXP/V V10L10, and others.

For UnixWare 7.1.x, see Porting from UnixWare.

Under UnixWare 1 and 2, DLPI was used to implement network adapters. On all version of UnixWare, DLPI is used to implement network protocol stacks.


13.1 SVR4.2 Driver Addressing


13.1.1 SVR4.2 Driver Naming


13.1.2 SVR4.2 PPA Selection


13.1.3 SVR4.2 SAP Addressing


13.1.4 SVR4.2 Primitive Addresses


13.1.5 SVR4.2 Quality of Service Parameters


13.2 SVR4.2 Driver Features


13.2.1 SVR4.2 LAN Operation

13.2.1.1 SVR4.2 Ethernet and SNAP Operation

13.2.1.2 SVR4.2 LLC Type 1 Operation

13.2.1.3 SVR4.2 LLC Type 2 Operation

13.2.1.4 SVR4.2 LLC Type 3 Operation


13.2.2 SVR4.2 WAN Operation


13.2.3 SVR4.2 Driver Modes

13.2.3.1 SVR4.2 Promiscuous Mode

[UnixWare 7] MDI support for promicuous mode differs from earlier driver architectures, where multiple opens were enabled:

DLPI and ODI drivers (UnixWare 1 and 2) can issue the DL_BIND_REQ primitive to the PROMISCUOUS_SAP sap. The following STREAMS input-output controls can then be sent:

13.2.3.2 SVR4.2 Raw Mode

13.2.3.3 SVR4.2 LLC2 Mode

LLC2 mode is a mode provided primarily by systems that do not support the DLPI connection-oriented mode. It allows the DLS User to include control octets in the data payload. Otherwise, LLC data would normally be sent by a DL_CLDLS DLS provider as an Unnumbered Information (UI) frame.

13.2.3.4 SVR4.2 CSMA/CD Mode

13.2.3.5 SVR4.2 Fast Path

13.2.3.6 SVR4.2 Combinded Connectionless and Connection-Oriented Modes


13.3 SVR4.2 Primitives


13.4 SVR4.2 Extension Primitives


13.5 SVR4.2 Input-Output Controls

DLIOCSMIB – Get MIB statistics (DL_mib_t).
DLIOCGMIB – Get MIB statistics (DL_mib_t).
DLIOCSENADDR – Set physical (MAC) address.
DLIOCGENADDR – Return Ethernet (MAC) address.
DLIOCSLPCFLG – Set local copy packet flag (send local packets on wire).
DLIOCGLPCFLG – Get local copy packet flag (send local packets on wire).
DLIOCSPROMISC – Set promiscuous mode flag.
DLIOCGPROMISC – Get promiscuous mode flag.

The DL_PROMISCON_REQ primitive is defined for DLPI 2.0.0 (UnixWare 7 and SCO OpenServer Release 5) and the DLPI 1.x equivalent is the DLIOCSPROMISC input-output control. Note, however, that these primitives are NAK’ed by the DLPI module because promiscuous mode is not implemented through DLPI (On UnixWare 7). The only way to implement promiscuous mode for UnixWare 7 and SCO OpenServer Release 5 is with MDI.

DLIOCADDMULTI – Add multicast address.
DLIOCDELMULTI – Delete multicast address.
DLIOCGETMULTI – Return list of multicast addresses.
DLIOCDISABLE – Disable controller – nearest equivalent is DL_UNBIND_REQ.
DLIOCENABLE – Enable controller – nearest equivalent is DL_BIND_REQ.
DLIOCRESET – Reset controller – nearest equivalent is to close and open the driver.
DLIOCCSMACDMODE – Switch SAP type to RAW.
DLIOCRAWMODE – Toggle RAW mode (Token-Ring adapters).
DLIOCLLC2MODE – Toggle LLC2 mode (Token-Ring adapters).

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


13.6 SVR4.2 Drivers and Modules


13.7 SVR4.2 Libraries


13.8 SVR4.2 Utilities


13.9 SVR4.2 Management


13.10 SVR4.2 Summary


14 Porting from UnixWare

This chapter highlights porting DLPI drivers, modules and applications from UnixWare to OpenSS7 and Linux.

For the purpose of the current disussion, UnixWare refers to the “merged product,” that is, the UnixWare 7.x.x releases. For UnixWare 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1.x see the section on porting from SVR4.2, Porting from SVR4.2.


14.1 UnixWare Driver Addressing


14.1.1 UnixWare Driver Naming


14.1.2 UnixWare PPA Selection


14.1.3 UnixWare SAP Addressing


14.1.4 UnixWare Primitive Addresses


14.1.5 UnixWare Quality of Service Parameters


14.2 UnixWare Driver Features


14.2.1 UnixWare LAN Operation

14.2.1.1 UnixWare Ethernet and SNAP Operation

14.2.1.2 UnixWare LLC Type 1 Operation

The UnixWare DLPI driver supports LLC Type 1 and Ethernet operation in the usual manner.

14.2.1.3 UnixWare LLC Type 2 Operation

UnixWare is one of the DLPI implementations that does not directly support LLC Type 2 operation. Also, no LLC2 Mode is apparently provided.

14.2.1.4 UnixWare LLC Type 3 Operation

UnixWare, as the other UNIX derivatives, does not directly support LLC Type 3 operation.


14.2.2 UnixWare WAN Operation


14.2.3 UnixWare Driver Modes

14.2.3.1 UnixWare Promiscuous Mode

Network adapter drivers normally process only those network frames containing the MAC address of the device they control or broadcast addresses. When promiscious mode is enabled, network frames bound for any MAC address are received and passed to the MDI consumer, whether a kernel driver or user program. This can be useful for network troubleshooting; network monitors and other tools rely upon promiscuous mode.

The UnixWare 7 and SCO OpenServer MDI specification provides optional support for promiscuous mode; it is no required. To implement promiscuous mode in an MDI driver, you must code a ‘switch’ statement to process the MDI MACIOC_PROMISC input-output control. For UnixWare 7 MDI drivers, the bcfg(4dsp) file includes the mandatory PROMISCUOUS parameter that must be set to ‘true’ if the driver supports promiscuous mode, or ‘false’ if it does not.

These MDI elements mandate promiscuous mode behaviour:

open(D2mdi)

must disable promiscuous mode if it was set by a previous MAC user that had closed the driver before open(2s) was called. Also, to ensure that open(2s) is not called more than one time before close(2s) is called, the drivers should fail subsequent calls to open(2s).

close(D2mdi)

must disable promiscious mode when the MDI device is closed.

M_IOCTL(D7str)

includes a ‘switch’ statement to process the MACIOC_PROMISC input-output control.

The DL_PROMISCON_REQ primitive is defined for DLPI 2.0.0 (UnixWare 7 and SCO OpenServer Release 5) and the DLPI 1.x equivalent is the DLIOCSPROMISC input-output control Note, however, that these primitives are NAK’ed by the DLPI module because promiscuous mode is not implemented through DLPI. The only way to implement promiscuous mode for UnixWare 7 and SCO OpenServer Release 5 is with MDI.

To access a MDI device in promiscuous mode:

  1. Open the /dev/mdi device.
  2. Send a MAC_BIND_REQ primitive to the device with the putmsg(2s) or putpmsg(2s) system call.
  3. Send a MACIOC_PROMISC input-output control to enable promiscous mode.
  4. Read all frames with getmsg(2s) or getpmsg(2s) until “done”.
  5. Close the file descriptor for the /dev/mdi device.

Promiscuous mode must be disabled when MDI drivers are opened (they are usually opened eby the DLPI module), and the DLPI module will not pass the MACIOC_PROMISC input-output control to the driver, because the underlying DL_PROMISCON_REQ primitive is NAK’ed on /dev/netX devices. Because MDI drivers support only one open per device, it is not possible to open the network adapter for both a protocol stack and a network monitoring application at the same time. It is therefore necessary to device an entire network adapter to running network monitors in promiscuous mode, or to use the network adapter card in single-user mode before dlpid has started.

14.2.3.2 UnixWare Raw Mode

UnixWare does not document an Raw mode feature, regardless of it being supported on older versions using the DLIOCRAWMODE input-output control.

14.2.3.3 UnixWare LLC2 Mode

UnixWare does not document an LLC2 mode feature, regardless of it being supported on older versions using the DLIOCLLC2MODE input-output control.

14.2.3.4 UnixWare CSMA/CD Mode

UnixWare does not document a CSMA/CD mode feature, regardless of it being supported on older versions using the DLIOCCSMACDMODE input-output control.

14.2.3.5 UnixWare Fast Path

UnixWare does not document a Fast Path feature.

14.2.3.6 UnixWare Combinded Connectionless and Connection-Oriented Modes


14.3 UnixWare Primitives

14.3.1 UnixWare Supported Primitives

The following local management primitives are supported by UnixWare:

DL_INFO_REQrequest information from DLS provider.
DL_INFO_ACKrespond with information to DLS user.
DL_OK_ACKprimitive received successfully.
DL_ERROR_ACKprimitive received in error.
DL_BIND_REQrequest DLS provider to bind Stream to SAP.
DL_BIND_ACKbind of Stream to DLSAP was successful.
DL_SUBS_BIND_REQbind to subsequent SAP or DLSAP.
DL_SUBS_BIND_ACKsuccessfuls subsequent bind of Stream.
DL_SUBS_UNBIND_REQrequest DLS provider to unbind subsequent DLSAP.
DL_UNBIND_REQrequest DLS provider unbind from all DLSAPs.
DL_ENABMULTI_REQenable multicast address.
DL_DISABMULTI_REQdisable multicast address.
DL_PHYS_ADDR_REQrequest physical address.
DL_PHYS_ADDR_ACKrespond with physical address.
DL_SET_PHYS_ADDR_REQrequest DLS provider set physical address.
DL_GET_STATISTICS_REQrequest statistics.
DL_GET_STATISTICS_ACKrespond with statistics.

The following XID and TEST primitives are supported by UnixWare:

DL_XID_REQrequest XID command DLPDU.
DL_XID_INDindicates XID command DLPDU.
DL_XID_RESrequest to XID response DLPDU.
DL_XID_CONindicated XID response DLPDU.
DL_TEST_REQrequest TEST command DLPDU.
DL_TEST_INDindicates TEST command DLPDU.
DL_TEST_RESrequest to TEST response DLPDU.
DL_TEST_CONindicated TEST response DLPDU.

The following connectionless mode primitives are supported by UnixWare:

DL_UNITDATA_REQconvey unit data to DSL provider.
DL_UNITDATA_INDconvey unit data to DLS user.
DL_UDERROR_INDconvey unit data error to DLS user.

14.3.2 UnixWare Unsupported Primitives

The following local management primitives are not supoprted by UnixWare:

The following connectionless mode primitives are not supported by UnixWare:

The following connection-oriented mode primitives are not supported by UnixWare:

The following acknowledged connectionless mode primitives are not supported by UnixWare:


14.4 UnixWare Extension Primitives

UnixWare defines a number of extension primitives. These extension primitives are documented in the UnixWare Intro(D7dlpi) manual page.

OpenSS7 recognizes all of these primitives and supports those primitives that are applicable to Linux. There is no public record of the numeric values that are assigned to these primitives, so only source compatibility is attempted.24 See the individual manual pages for these primitives in the OpenSS7 package for more information on compability.

Following are the UnixWare extension primitives:


14.5 UnixWare Input-Output Controls

The DLPI driver intercepts and response to the following MACIOC input-output contorl commands:

MACIOC_CLRMCA
MACIOC_DIAG
MACIOC_GETADDRReturn MAC address.
MACIOC_GETIFSTAT
MACIOC_GETRADDRReturn factory MAC address.
MACIOC_GETSTATReturn statistics.
MACIOC_LOCALSTAT
MACIOC_PROMISCEnable promiscuous mode.
MACIOC_SETADDRSet MAC address.
MACIOC_UNITSEL

The DLPI driver passes all other MACIOC input-output control commands to the MDI driver beneath it. Other MACIOC input-output control commands are as follows:

MACIOC_CLRSTATClear statistics structure.
MACIOC_DELALLMCAStop receiving multicast frames.
MACIOC_DELMCAStop receiving MAC frames.
MACIOC_GETMCAReturn active multicast addresses.
MACIOC_GETMCSIZReturn multicast address table size.
MACIOC_SETALLMCADeliver mulicast frames.
MACIOC_SETMCAReceive MAC frames.
MACIOC_SETSTATModify MIB attributes.

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


14.6 UnixWare Drivers and Modules


14.7 UnixWare Libraries


14.8 UnixWare Utilities


14.9 UnixWare Management


14.10 UnixWare Summary


15 Developing on OpenSS7


15.1 OpenSS7 Primitives


15.2 OpenSS7 Driver Addressing


15.2.1 OpenSS7 Driver Naming


15.2.2 OpenSS7 PPA Selection


15.2.3 OpenSS7 SAP Addressing


15.2.4 OpenSS7 Primitive Addresses


15.2.5 OpenSS7 Quality of Service Parameters


15.3 OpenSS7 Driver Features


15.3.1 OpenSS7 LAN Operation

15.3.1.1 OpenSS7 Ethernet and SNAP Operation

15.3.1.2 OpenSS7 LLC Type 1 Operation

15.3.1.3 OpenSS7 LLC Type 2 Operation

15.3.1.4 OpenSS7 LLC Type 3 Operation


15.3.2 OpenSS7 WAN Operation


15.3.3 OpenSS7 Driver Modes

15.3.3.1 OpenSS7 Promiscuous Mode

15.3.3.2 OpenSS7 Raw Mode

OpenSS7 supports all of the other forms of Raw Mode identified in this document, and particularly the AIX input-output control, Solaris input-output control, HP-UX data link service, SVR4.2 input-output control, and UnixWare input-output control approaches.

When developing new drivers that must present a raw mode to user-space DLPI applications, the SVR4.2 approach is recommended for OpenSS7. When developing new STREAMS drivers or modules that act as DLS Users, the DLS User can rely upon the fact that the first M_DATA message block.

15.3.3.3 OpenSS7 LLC2 Mode

15.3.3.4 OpenSS7 CSMA/CD Mode

15.3.3.5 OpenSS7 Fast Path

15.3.3.6 OpenSS7 Combined Mode


15.4 OpenSS7 Input-Output Controls

See dlpi_ioctl(4) for more detail.


15.5 OpenSS7 Drivers and Modules


15.6 OpenSS7 Libraries


15.7 OpenSS7 Utilities


15.8 OpenSS7 Management


15.9 OpenSS7 Summary


Licenses


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  8. Additional Terms.

    “Additional permissions” are terms that supplement the terms of this License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions. Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable law. If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to the additional permissions.

    When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Additional permissions may be written to require their own removal in certain cases when you modify the work.) You may place additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work, for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

    1. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or
    2. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or
    3. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in reasonable ways as different from the original version; or
    4. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or authors of the material; or
    5. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or
    6. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

    All other non-permissive additional terms are considered “further restrictions” within the meaning of section 10. If the Program as you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further restriction, you may remove that term. If a license document contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms of that license document, provided that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or conveying.

    If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating where to find the applicable terms.

    Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions; the above requirements apply either way.

  9. Termination.

    You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to propagate or modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third paragraph of section 11).

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same material under section 10.

  10. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

    You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or run a copy of the Program. Ancillary propagation of a covered work occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance. However, nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or modify any covered work. These actions infringe copyright if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

  11. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

    Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and propagate that work, subject to this License. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

    An “entity transaction” is a transaction transferring control of an organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an organization, or merging organizations. If propagation of a covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever licenses to the work the party’s predecessor in interest had or could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

    You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the rights granted or affirmed under this License. For example, you may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  12. Patents.

    A “contributor” is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based. The work thus licensed is called the contributor’s “contributor version”.

    A contributor’s “essential patent claims” are all patent claims owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version, but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the contributor version. For purposes of this definition, “control” includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License.

    Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free patent license under the contributor’s essential patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its contributor version.

    In the following three paragraphs, a “patent license” is any express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement). To “grant” such a patent license to a party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

    If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a publicly available network server or other readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream recipients. “Knowingly relying” means you have actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work in a country, or your recipient’s use of the covered work in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that country that you have reason to believe are valid.

    If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

    A patent license is “discriminatory” if it does not include within the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are specifically granted under this License. You may not convey a covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with specific products or compilations that contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

    Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  13. No Surrender of Others’ Freedom.

    If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it at all. For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  14. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users interacting with it remotely through a network (if your version supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary means of facilitating copying of software. This Corresponding Source shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3 of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the following paragraph.

    Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single combined work, and to convey the resulting work. The terms of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work, but the work with which it is combined will remain governed by version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

  15. Revised Versions of this License.

    The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the GNU Affero General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

    Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU Affero General Public License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of the GNU Affero General Public License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

    If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of the GNU Affero General Public License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

    Later license versions may give you additional or different permissions. However, no additional obligations are imposed on any author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a later version.

  16. Disclaimer of Warranty.

    THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  17. Limitation of Liability.

    IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

  18. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

    If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms, reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the “copyright” line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.
Copyright (C) year name of author

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
Affero General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If your software can interact with users remotely through a network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to get its source. For example, if your program is a web application, its interface could display a “Source” link that leads users to an archive of the code. There are many ways you could offer source, and different solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the specific requirements.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a “copyright disclaimer” for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.


GNU Free Documentation License



GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
Copyright © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
http://fsf.org/

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
  1. PREAMBLE

    The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document free in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

    This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

    We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

  2. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

    This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as “you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law.

    A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language.

    A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.

    The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

    The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

    A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not “Transparent” is called “Opaque”.

    Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

    The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, “Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

    The “publisher” means any person or entity that distributes copies of the Document to the public.

    A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, “Endorsements”, or “History”.) To “Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section “Entitled XYZ” according to this definition.

    The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  3. VERBATIM COPYING

    You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

    You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

  4. COPYING IN QUANTITY

    If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

    If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.

    If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.

    It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

  5. MODIFICATIONS

    You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

    1. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
    2. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
    3. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher.
    4. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
    5. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices.
    6. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
    7. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
    8. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
    9. Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
    10. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the “History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
    11. For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
    12. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
    13. Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version.
    14. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
    15. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

    If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

    You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties—for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.

    You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

    The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  6. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

    You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

    The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

    In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements.”

  7. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

    You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

    You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

  8. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

    A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an “aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

    If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

  9. TRANSLATION

    Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.

    If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or “History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

  10. TERMINATION

    You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

    However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

    Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after your receipt of the notice.

    Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

  11. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

    The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

    Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version” applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that proxy’s public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

  12. RELICENSING

    “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A “Massive Multiauthor Collaboration” (or “MMC”) contained in the site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.

    “CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license published by that same organization.

    “Incorporate” means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in part, as part of another Document.

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UNIX International DLPI License

This license is from the Revision 2.0.0 Data Link Provider Interface (DLPI) specification published by UNIX International Inc, August 20, 1991:

Copyright © 1991 UNIX International, Inc.
All Rights Reserved.

Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name UNIX International not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. UNIX International makes no representations about the suitability of this documentation for any purpose. It is provided “as is” without express or implied warranty.

UNIX INTERNATIONAL DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENTATION, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL UNIX INTERNATIONAL BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION.

Notice:

This document is based on the UNIX System Laboratories Data Link Provider Interface (DLPI) specification which was used with permission by the UNIX International OSI Work Group (UI OSIWG). Participation in the UI OSIWG is open to UNIX International members and other interested parties. For further information contact UNIX International at the addresses above.

UNIX International is making this documentation available as a reference point for the industry. While UNIX International believes that these interfaces are well defined in this release of the document, minor changes may be made prior to products conforming to the interfaces being made available from UNIX System Laboratories or UNIX International members.

Trademarks:

UNIX® is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories in the United States and other countries.

X/Open(TM) is a trademark of the X/Open Company Ltd. in the UK and other countries.


Index

Jump to:   A   C   D   F   G   H   I   L   M   O   P   R   S   U   W  
Index Entry  Section

A
agencies: Agencies
AIX addressing: AIX Driver Addressing
AIX csma/cd mode: AIX CSMA/CD Mode
AIX drivers and modules: AIX Drivers and Modules
AIX features: AIX Driver Features
AIX input-output controls: AIX Input-Output Controls
AIX lan operation: AIX LAN Operation
AIX libraries: AIX Libraries
AIX llc2 mode: AIX LLC2 Mode
AIX management: AIX Management
AIX primitives: AIX Primitives
AIX raw mode: AIX Raw Mode
AIX summary: AIX Summary
AIX utilities: AIX Utilities
AIX wan operation: AIX WAN Operation
AIXlink/X.25 addressing: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Addressing
AIXlink/X.25 csma/cd mode: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes
AIXlink/X.25 drivers and modules: AIXlink/X.25 Drivers and Modules
AIXlink/X.25 features: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Features
AIXlink/X.25 input-output controls: AIXlink/X.25 Input-Output Controls
AIXlink/X.25 lan operation: AIXlink/X.25 LAN Operation
AIXlink/X.25 libraries: AIXlink/X.25 Libraries
AIXlink/X.25 llc2 mode: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes
AIXlink/X.25 management: AIXlink/X.25 Management
AIXlink/X.25 primitives: AIXlink/X.25 Primitives
AIXlink/X.25 summary: AIXlink/X.25 Summary
AIXlink/X.25 utilities: AIXlink/X.25 Utilities
AIXlink/X.25 wan operation: AIXlink/X.25 WAN Operation
AIXlinx/X.25 raw mode: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes

C
concepts: Concepts
contributors: Contributors
credits: Acknowledgements
csma/cd mode: Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: DLPI Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: AIX CSMA/CD Mode
csma/cd mode: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: HP-UX Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: IRIX Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: OSF Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: PowerMAX Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: Solaris Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: UnixWare Driver Modes
csma/cd mode: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode AIX: AIX CSMA/CD Mode
csma/cd mode AIXlink/X.25: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode DLPI: DLPI Driver Modes
csma/cd mode HP-UX: HP-UX Driver Modes
csma/cd mode IRIX: IRIX Driver Modes
csma/cd mode OpenSS7: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode OSF: OSF Driver Modes
csma/cd mode PowerMAX: PowerMAX Driver Modes
csma/cd mode Solaris: Solaris Driver Modes
csma/cd mode Solstice X.25: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode SVR4.2: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
csma/cd mode UnixWare: UnixWare Driver Modes

D
development: Developing on OpenSS7
DLPI csma/cd mode: DLPI Driver Modes
DLPI drivers and modules: DLPI Drivers and Modules
DLPI features: DLPI Driver Features
DLPI ioctls: DLPI Input-Output Controls
DLPI lan operation: DLPI LAN Operation
DLPI libraries: DLPI Libraries
DLPI llc2 mode: DLPI Driver Modes
DLPI management: DLPI Management
DLPI primitives: DLPI Primitives
DLPI raw mode: DLPI Driver Modes
DLPI summary: DLPI Summary
DLPI utilities: DLPI Utilities
DLPI wan operation: DLPI WAN Operation
drivers and modules: Device Drivers and Modules
drivers and modules: OpenSS7 Drivers and Modules

F
features: Driver Features
features: OpenSS7 Driver Features

G
general porting considerations: General Porting Considerations
guide conventions: Conventions
guide organization: Organization
guide overview: Overview

H
HP-UX addressing: HP-UX Driver Addressing
HP-UX csma/cd mode: HP-UX Driver Modes
HP-UX drivers and modules: HP-UX Drivers and Modules
HP-UX features: HP-UX Driver Features
HP-UX input-output controls: HP-UX Input-Output Controls
HP-UX lan operation: HP-UX LAN Operation
HP-UX libraries: HP-UX Libraries
HP-UX llc2 mode: HP-UX Driver Modes
HP-UX management: HP-UX Management
HP-UX primitives: HP-UX Primitives
HP-UX raw mode: HP-UX Driver Modes
HP-UX summary: HP-UX Summary
HP-UX utilities: HP-UX Utilities
HP-UX wan operation: HP-UX WAN Operation

I
input-output controls: Driver Input-Output Controls
input-output controls: OpenSS7 Input-Output Controls
introduction: Introduction
IRIX addressing: IRIX Driver Addressing
IRIX csma/cd mode: IRIX Driver Modes
IRIX drivers and modules: IRIX Drivers and Modules
IRIX features: IRIX Driver Features
IRIX input-output controls: IRIX Input-Output Controls
IRIX lan operation: IRIX LAN Operation
IRIX libraries: IRIX Libraries
IRIX llc2 mode: IRIX Driver Modes
IRIX management: IRIX Management
IRIX primitives: IRIX Primitives
IRIX raw mode: IRIX Driver Modes
IRIX summary: IRIX Summary
IRIX utilities: IRIX Utilities
IRIX wan operation: IRIX WAN Operation

L
lan operation: LAN Operation
lan operation AIX: AIX LAN Operation
lan operation AIXlink/X.25: AIXlink/X.25 LAN Operation
lan operation DLPI: DLPI LAN Operation
lan operation HP-UX: HP-UX LAN Operation
lan operation IRIX: IRIX LAN Operation
lan operation OpenSS7: OpenSS7 LAN Operation
lan operation OSF: OSF LAN Operation
lan operation PowerMAX: PowerMAX LAN Operation
lan operation Solaris: Solaris LAN Operation
lan operation Solstice X.25: Solstice X.25 LAN Operation
lan operation SVR4.2: SVR4.2 LAN Operation
lan operation UnixWare: UnixWare LAN Operation
libraries: Support and Add-On Libraries
libraries: OpenSS7 Libraries
license, AGPL: GNU Affero General Public License
license, FDL: GNU Free Documentation License
license, GNU Affero General Public License: GNU Affero General Public License
license, GNU Free Documentation License: GNU Free Documentation License
license, UI DLPI: UNIX International DLPI License
license, UNIX International Inc.: UNIX International DLPI License
licenses: Licenses
licensing: Notice
llc type 1 operation: LAN Operation
llc type 1 operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation
llc type 2 operation: LAN Operation
llc type 2 operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation
llc type 3 operation: LAN Operation
llc type 3 operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation
llc1 operation: LAN Operation
llc1 operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation
llc2 mode: Driver Modes
llc2 mode AIX: AIX LLC2 Mode
llc2 mode AIXlink/X.25: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes
llc2 mode DLPI: DLPI Driver Modes
llc2 mode HP-UX: HP-UX Driver Modes
llc2 mode IRIX: IRIX Driver Modes
llc2 mode OpenSS7: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
llc2 mode OSF: OSF Driver Modes
llc2 mode PowerMAX: PowerMAX Driver Modes
llc2 mode Solaris: Solaris Driver Modes
llc2 mode Solstice X.25: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
llc2 mode SVR4.2: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
llc2 mode UnixWare: UnixWare Driver Modes
llc2 operation: LAN Operation
llc2 operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation
llc3 operation: LAN Operation
llc3 operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation

M
management: Device and Driver Management
management: OpenSS7 Management
manual abstract: Abstract
manual audience: Abstract
manual disclaimer: Disclaimer
manual intent: Abstract
manual notice: Notice
manual objective: Abstract
manual revisions: Revisions

O
OpenSS7 addressing: OpenSS7 Driver Addressing
OpenSS7 csma/cd mode: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
OpenSS7 lan operation: OpenSS7 LAN Operation
OpenSS7 llc2 mode: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
OpenSS7 raw mode: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
OpenSS7 wan operation: OpenSS7 WAN Operation
OSF addressing: OSF Driver Addressing
OSF csma/cd mode: OSF Driver Modes
OSF drivers and modules: OSF Drivers and Modules
OSF features: OSF Driver Features
OSF input-output controls: OSF Input-Output Controls
OSF lan operation: OSF LAN Operation
OSF libraries: OSF Libraries
OSF llc2 mode: OSF Driver Modes
OSF management: OSF Management
OSF primitives: OSF Primitives
OSF raw mode: OSF Driver Modes
OSF summary: OSF Summary
OSF utilities: OSF Utilities
OSF wan operation: OSF WAN Operation

P
porting: Porting
Porting from AIX: Porting from AIX
Porting from AIXlink/X.25: Porting from AIXlink/X.25
Porting from DLPI: Porting from DLPI
Porting from HP-UX: Porting from HP-UX
Porting from IRIX: Porting from IRIX
Porting from OSF: Porting from OSF
Porting from PowerMAX: Porting from PowerMAX
Porting from Solaris: Porting from Solaris
Porting from Solstice X.25: Porting from Solstice X.25
Porting from SVR4.2: Porting from SVR4.2
Porting from UnixWare: Porting from UnixWare
PowerMAX addressing: PowerMAX Driver Addressing
PowerMAX csma/cd mode: PowerMAX Driver Modes
PowerMAX drivers and modules: PowerMAX Drivers and Modules
PowerMAX features: PowerMAX Driver Features
PowerMAX input-output controls: PowerMAX Input-Output Controls
PowerMAX lan operation: PowerMAX LAN Operation
PowerMAX libraries: PowerMAX Libraries
PowerMAX llc2 mode: PowerMAX Driver Modes
PowerMAX management: PowerMAX Management
PowerMAX primitives: PowerMAX Primitives
PowerMAX raw mode: PowerMAX Driver Modes
PowerMAX summary: PowerMAX Summary
PowerMAX utilities: PowerMAX Utilities
PowerMAX wan operation: PowerMAX WAN Operation
primitives: Primitives
primitives: OpenSS7 Primitives

R
raw mode: Driver Modes
raw mode AIX: AIX Raw Mode
raw mode AIXlinx/X.25: AIXlink/X.25 Driver Modes
raw mode DLPI: DLPI Driver Modes
raw mode HP-UX: HP-UX Driver Modes
raw mode IRIX: IRIX Driver Modes
raw mode OpenSS7: OpenSS7 Driver Modes
raw mode OSF: OSF Driver Modes
raw mode PowerMAX: PowerMAX Driver Modes
raw mode Solaris: Solaris Driver Modes
raw mode Solstice X.25: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
raw mode SVR4.2: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
raw mode UnixWare: UnixWare Driver Modes

S
Solaris addressing: Solaris Driver Addressing
Solaris csma/cd mode: Solaris Driver Modes
Solaris drivers and modules: Solaris Drivers and Modules
Solaris features: Solaris Driver Features
Solaris input-output controls: Solaris Input-Output Controls
Solaris lan operation: Solaris LAN Operation
Solaris libraries: Solaris Libraries
Solaris llc2 mode: Solaris Driver Modes
Solaris management: Solaris Management
Solaris primitives: Solaris Primitives
Solaris raw mode: Solaris Driver Modes
Solaris summary: Solaris Summary
Solaris utilities: Solaris Utilities
Solaris wan operation: Solaris WAN Operation
Solstice X.25 addressing: Solstice X.25 Driver Addressing
Solstice X.25 csma/cd mode: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
Solstice X.25 drivers and modules: Solstice X.25 Drivers and Modules
Solstice X.25 features: Solstice X.25 Driver Features
Solstice X.25 input-output controls: Solstice X.25 Input-Output Controls
Solstice X.25 lan operation: Solstice X.25 LAN Operation
Solstice X.25 libraries: Solstice X.25 Libraries
Solstice X.25 llc2 mode: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
Solstice X.25 management: Solstice X.25 Management
Solstice X.25 primitives: Solstice X.25 Primitives
Solstice X.25 raw mode: Solstice X.25 Driver Modes
Solstice X.25 summary: Solstice X.25 Summary
Solstice X.25 utilities: Solstice X.25 Utilities
Solstice X.25 wan operation: Solstice X.25 WAN Operation
sponsors: Sponsors
summary: OpenSS7 Summary
supporters: Supporters
SVR4.2 addressing: SVR4.2 Driver Addressing
SVR4.2 csma/cd mode: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
SVR4.2 drivers and modules: SVR4.2 Drivers and Modules
SVR4.2 Extension Primitives: SVR4.2 Extension Primitives
SVR4.2 features: SVR4.2 Driver Features
SVR4.2 input-output controls: SVR4.2 Input-Output Controls
SVR4.2 lan operation: SVR4.2 LAN Operation
SVR4.2 libraries: SVR4.2 Libraries
SVR4.2 llc2 mode: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
SVR4.2 management: SVR4.2 Management
SVR4.2 Primitives: SVR4.2 Primitives
SVR4.2 raw mode: SVR4.2 Driver Modes
SVR4.2 summary: SVR4.2 Summary
SVR4.2 utilities: SVR4.2 Utilities
SVR4.2 wan operation: SVR4.2 WAN Operation

U
UnixWare addressing: UnixWare Driver Addressing
UnixWare csma/cd mode: UnixWare Driver Modes
UnixWare drivers and modules: UnixWare Drivers and Modules
UnixWare Extension Primitives: UnixWare Extension Primitives
UnixWare features: UnixWare Driver Features
UnixWare input-output controls: UnixWare Input-Output Controls
UnixWare lan operation: UnixWare LAN Operation
UnixWare libraries: UnixWare Libraries
UnixWare llc2 mode: UnixWare Driver Modes
UnixWare management: UnixWare Management
UnixWare Primitives: UnixWare Primitives
UnixWare raw mode: UnixWare Driver Modes
UnixWare summary: UnixWare Summary
UnixWare utilities: UnixWare Utilities
UnixWare wan operation: UnixWare WAN Operation
utilities: Support and Management Utilities
utilities: OpenSS7 Utilities

W
wan operation: WAN Operation
wan operation AIX: AIX WAN Operation
wan operation AIXlink/X.25: AIXlink/X.25 WAN Operation
wan operation DLPI: DLPI WAN Operation
wan operation HP-UX: HP-UX WAN Operation
wan operation IRIX: IRIX WAN Operation
wan operation OpenSS7: OpenSS7 WAN Operation
wan operation OSF: OSF WAN Operation
wan operation PowerMAX: PowerMAX WAN Operation
wan operation Solaris: Solaris WAN Operation
wan operation Solstice X.25: Solstice X.25 WAN Operation
wan operation SVR4.2: SVR4.2 WAN Operation
wan operation UnixWare: UnixWare WAN Operation

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