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strtty Manual

Description: OpenSS7 Online Manuals

A PDF version of this document is available here.

OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals

OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals Installation and Reference Manual

About This Manual

This is Edition 4, last updated 2008-10-31, of The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals Installation and Reference Manual, for Version 0.9.2 release 4 of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package.

Preface

Notice

This package is released and distributed under the GNU Affero General Public License (see AGPL). Please note, however, that there are different licensing terms for the manual pages and some of the documentation (derived from OpenGroup1 publications and other sources). Consult the permission notices contained in the documentation for more information.

Also note that parts of this software, as identified in Possible BSD Sources, may be derived from software developed by the University of California, Berkeley covered under the Combined USL BSD License (see BSD/USL Combined License).

This manual is released under the FDL (see GNU Free Documentation License) with no sections invariant.

Abstract

This manual provides a Installation and Reference Manual for OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals.

Objective

The objective of this manual is to provide a guide for the STREAMS programmer when developing STREAMS modules, drivers and application programs for OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals.

This guide provides information to developers on the use of the STREAMS mechanism at user and kernel levels.

STREAMS was incorporated in UNIX System V Release 3 to augment the character input/output (I/O) mechanism and to support development of communication services.

STREAMS provides developers with integral functions, a set of utility routines, and facilities that expedite software design and implementation.

Intent

The intent of this manual is to act as an introductory guide to the STREAMS programmer. It is intended to be read alone and is not intended to replace or supplement the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals manual pages. For a reference for writing code, the manual pages (see STREAMS(9)) provide a better reference to the programmer. Although this describes the features of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package, OpenSS7 Corporation is under no obligation to provide any software, system or feature listed herein.

Audience

This manual is intended for a highly technical audience. The reader should already be familiar with Linux kernel programming, the Linux file system, character devices, driver input and output, interrupts, software interrupt handling, scheduling, process contexts, multiprocessor locks, etc.

The guide is intended for network and systems programmers, who use the STREAMS mechanism at user and kernel levels for Linux and UNIX system communication services.

Readers of the guide are expected to possess prior knowledge of the Linux and UNIX system, programming, networking, and data communication.

Revisions

Take care that you are working with a current version of this manual: you will not be notified of updates. To ensure that you are working with a current version, contact the Author, or check The OpenSS7 Project website for a current version.

A current version of this manual is normally distributed with the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package.

Version Control

     strtty.texi,v
     Revision 0.9.2.16  2008-09-20 11:04:39  brian
     - added package patchlevel
     
     Revision 0.9.2.15  2008-08-03 06:03:39  brian
     - protected agains texinfo commands in log entries
     
     Revision 0.9.2.14  2008/07/27 08:49:44  brian
     - no invariant sections, more libtool ignores
     
     Revision 0.9.2.13  2008-04-28 17:46:01  brian
     - updates for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.12  2008-04-25 11:50:55  brian
     - updates to AGPLv3
     
     Revision 0.9.2.11  2007/08/12 06:45:07  brian
     - updated licenses in manuals
     
     Revision 0.9.2.10  2007/02/28 06:31:32  brian
     - updates and corrections, #ifdef instead of #if
     
     Revision 0.9.2.9  2007/01/03 14:53:53  brian
     - documentation updates for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.8  2006/12/31 13:52:30  brian
     - updated documentation for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.7  2006/12/31 11:20:20  brian
     - documentation updates for release
     
     Revision 0.9.2.6  2006/09/18 01:07:20  brian
     - updated manuals and release texi docs
     
     Revision 0.9.2.5  2006/08/28 10:47:11  brian
     - correction
     
     Revision 0.9.2.4  2006/08/28 10:32:59  brian
     - updated references
     
     Revision 0.9.2.3  2006/08/27 12:27:14  brian
     - finalizing auto release files
     
     Revision 0.9.2.2  2006/08/26 09:19:34  brian
     - better release file generation
     
     Revision 0.9.2.1  2006/08/23 09:53:14  brian
     - started STREAMS Terminals package
     

ISO 9000 Compliance

Only the TeX, texinfo, or roff source for this manual is controlled. An opaque (printed, postscript or portable document format) version of this manual is an UNCONTROLLED VERSION.

Disclaimer

OpenSS7 Corporation disclaims all warranties with regard to this documentation including all implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, non-infringement, or title; that the contents of the manual are suitable for any purpose, or that the implementation of such contents will not infringe on any third party patents, copyrights, trademarks or other rights. In no event shall OpenSS7 Corporation be liable for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with any use of this manual or the performance or implementation of the contents thereof.

OpenSS7 Corporation reserves the right to revise this software and documentation for any reason, including but not limited to, conformity with standards promulgated by various agencies, utilization of advances in the state of the technical arts, or the reflection of changes in the design of any techniques, or procedures embodied, described, or referred to herein. OpenSS7 Corporation is under no obligation to provide any feature listed herein.

U.S. Government Restricted Rights

If you are licensing this Software on behalf of the U.S. Government ("Government"), the following provisions apply to you. If the Software is supplied by the Department of Defense ("DoD"), it is classified as "Commercial Computer Software" under paragraph 252.227-7014 of the DoD Supplement to the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("DFARS") (or any successor regulations) and the Government is acquiring only the license rights granted herein (the license rights customarily provided to non-Government users). If the Software is supplied to any unit or agency of the Government other than DoD, it is classified as "Restricted Computer Software" and the Government's rights in the Software are defined in paragraph 52.227-19 of the Federal Acquisition Regulations ("FAR") (or any successor regulations) or, in the cases of NASA, in paragraph 18.52.227-86 of the NASA Supplement to the FAR (or any successor regulations).

Acknowledgements

As with most open source projects, this project would not have been possible without the valiant efforts and productive software of the Free Software Foundation and the Linux Kernel Community.

Sponsors

Funding for completion of the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package was provided in part by:

OpenSS7 Corporation

Additional funding for The OpenSS7 Project was provided by:

OpenSS7 Corporation
Lockheed Martin Co.
Motorola
HOB International
Comverse Ltd.
Sonus Networks Inc.
France Telecom
SS8 Networks Inc.
Nortel Networks
Verisign
eServGlobal (NZ) Pty Ltd.
NetCentrex S. A.
SysMaster Corporation
GeoLink SA
AirNet Communications
TECORE
Tumsan Oy
Vodare Ltd.
Excel Telecommunications

Contributors

The primary contributor to the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is Brian F. G. Bidulock. The following is a list of significant contributors to The OpenSS7 Project:

− Per Berquist
− John Boyd
− Chuck Winters
− Peter Courtney
− Tom Chandler
− Gurol Ackman
− Kutluk Testicioglu
− John Wenker
− Others

Authors

The authors of the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package include:

Brian Bidulock

See Author Index, for a complete listing and cross-index of authors to sections of this manual.

Maintainer

The maintainer of the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is:

Brian Bidulock

Please send bug reports to bugs@openss7.org using the send-pr script included in the package, only after reading the BUGS file in the release, or See Problem Reports.

Web Resources

The OpenSS7 Project provides a website dedicated to the software packages released by the OpenSS7 Project.

Bug Reports

Please send bug reports to bugs@openss7.org using the send-pr script included in the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package, only after reading the BUGS file in the release, or See Problem Reports. You can access the OpenSS7 GNATS database directly via the web, however, the preferred method for sending new bug reports is via mail with the send-pr script.

Mailing Lists

The OpenSS7 Project provides a number of general discussion Mailing Lists for discussion concerning the OpenSS7 OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package as well as other packages released by The OpenSS7 Project.

These are mailman mailing lists and so have convenient web interfaces for subscribers to control their settings. See http://www.openss7.org/mailinglist.html.

The mailing lists are as follows:

openss7
The openss7 mailing list is for general enquiries, information exchange and announcements regarding the OpenSS7 Project. This is our original mailing list and takes the highest amount of traffic.
openss7-announce
The openss7-announce mailing list is for announcements related to the OpenSS7 Project. This list will accept announcements posted by subscribers. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in announcements from the OpenSS7 Project, subscribers and sponsors, related to the OpenSS7 Project or STREAMS, SS7, SIGTRAN or SCTP in general.
openss7-cvs
The openss7-cvs mailing list is for automatic CVS log reporting. You must get permission of the owner to subscribe to this list. Subscribers are not allowed to post to this list, this is merely for distributing notification of changes to the CVS repository.h
openss7-develop
The openss7-develop mailing list is for email exchange related to the development projects under the OpenSS7 Project. This includes development requests, proposals, requests for comment or proposal. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in ongoing development details regarding the OpenSS7 Project.
openss7-test
The openss7-test mailing list is for email exchange related to the testing of code under the OpenSS7 Project. This specifically relates to conformance testing, verification testing, interoperability testing and beta testing. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in participating in and receiving ongoing details of test activities under the OpenSS7 Project.
openss7-bugs
The openss7-bugs mailing list is specifically tailored to bug tracking. The mailing list takes a feed from the OpenSS7 GNATS bug tracking system and accepts posting of responses to bug reports, tracking and resolution. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in receiving detailed OpenSS7 release code bug tracking information. This list is not archived; for historical information on problem reports, see our GNATS databases.
openss7-updates
The openss7-updates mailing list provides updates on OpenSS7 Project code releases and ongoing activities. Subscribers are not allowed to post to this list; this list is for official OpenSS7 Project announcements only. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in receiving updates concerning official releases and activities of the OpenSS7 Project.
openss7-streams
The openss7-streams mailing list is for email exchange related to the STREAMS development projects under the OpenSS7 Project. This includes development requests, proposals, requests for comment or proposal. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in ongoing development details regarding the OpenSS7 Project STREAMS components.
linux-streams
The linux-streams mailing list is for mail exchange related to Linux Fast-STREAMS or Linux STREAMS. This includes patches, development requests, proposals, requests for comment or proposal. Subscribe to this list if you are interested in ongoing development details regarding the STREAMS for Linux components. This is the the new (September 2006) home of the linux-streams list formerly of <gsyc.escet.urjc.es>.
Spam

To avoid spam being sent to the members of the OpenSS7 mailing list(s), we have blocked mail from non-subscribers. Please subscribe to the mailing list before attempting to post to them. (Attempts to post when not subscribed get bounced.)

As an additional measure against spam, subscriber lists for all OpenSS7 mailing lists are not accessible to non-subscribers; for most lists subscriber lists are only accessible to the list administrator. This keeps your mailing address from being picked off our website by bulk mailers.

Acceptable Use Policy

It is acceptable to post professional and courteous messages regarding the OpenSS7 package or any general information or questions concerning STREAMS, SS7, SIGTRAN, SCTP or telecommunications applications in general.

Large Attachments

The mailing list is blocked from messages of greater than 40k. If you have attachments (patches, test programs, etc.) and you mail them to the list, it will bounce to the list administrator. If you are interested in making your patches, test programs, test results or other large attachments available to the members of the mailing list, state in the message that you would like them posted and the list administrator will place them in the mail archives.

Quick Start Guide

OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals

Package strtty-0.9.2.4 was released under AGPLv3 2008-10-31.

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package provides STREAMS modules and drivers, libraries, programs, init scripts, and daemons that implement the classical SVR 4 Terminal Subsystem.

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package includes kernel modules, SVR 4.2 STREAMS drivers, modules, libraries, utilities, test programs, daemons, and development environment for the development and execution of OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals components and applications for the SVR 4.2 STREAMS environment. It provides true STREAMS-based Pseudo-Terminals for Linux.

The package builds and installs the following STREAMS kernel modules and drivers:

streams_pty.ko driver /dev/ptmx /dev/pts/0
streams_ptem.ko module ptem
streams_pckt.ko module pckt
streams_ldterm.ko module ldterm
streams_ttcompat.ko module ttcompat
pty(4)
The pty(4) driver is a Pseudo-Terminal Driver that provides the classical UNIX® master and slave pseudo-terminals.

This driver is complete but untested.

ptem(4)
The ptem(4) module is a Pseudo-Terminal Emulation Module that provide hardware terminal emulation for the slave side of a Pseudo-Terminal provided by the pty(4) driver. This module is pushed over the slave side of a pseudo-terminal before pushing ldterm(4).

This module is complete but untested.

pckt(4)
The pckt(4) module is a Packet Module. This is the classical UNIX® packetization module that is pushed over the master side of a pseudo-terminal to allow the master to view the detailed state of the pseudo-terminal.

This module is complete but untested.

ldterm(4)
The ldterm(4) module is a Line Discipline Terminal Module. This is the classical UNIX® line discipline module for terminals. This module is pushed last on the slave side of a psuedo-terminal, after ptem(4) and provides the POSIX terminal interface to the user.

This module is incomplete.

ttcompat(4)
The ttcompat(4) module is a TTY Compatibility Module. This is a module that provides UNIX® Version 7 and 4BSD compatible terminal interfaces. These interfaces are no longer in use and this module has only marginal value.

This module is complete but untested.

The package builds and installs the following shared object libraries:

libtty(3)
The libtty(3) library provides replacements for POSIX terminal handling functions that are not properly implemented in glibc. These functions are:

openpt(3tty) – open a master pseudo-terminal
ptsname(3tty) – obtain name for slave device
grantpt(3tty) – grant access to the slave device
unlockpt(3tty) – unlock the pseudo-terminal

This library is incomplete.

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package includes kernel modules, SVR 4.2 STREAMS drivers, modules, libraries, utilities, test programs, daemons, and development environment for the development and execution of OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals components and applications for the SVR 4.2 STREAMS environment.

This package is currently incomplete. It is being released as a reference point for the community. If you are interested in completion of this package, contact info@openss7.com.

This distribution is only currently applicable to Linux 2.4 and 2.6 kernels and was targeted at ix86, x86_64, ppc and ppc64 architectures, but should build and install for other architectures as well.

Release

This is the strtty-0.9.2.4 package, released 2008-10-31. This ‘0.9.2.4’ release, and the latest version, can be obtained from the download area of The OpenSS7 Project website using a command such as:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

The release is available as an autoconf(1) tarball, src.rpm or dsc, as a set of binary rpms or debs, or as a yum(8) or apt(8) repository. See the download page for the autoconf(1) tarballs, src.rpms, dscs, or repository access instructions. See the strtty package page for tarballs, source and binary packages.

Please see the NEWS file for release notes and history of user visible changes for the current version, and the ChangeLog file for a more detailed history of implementation changes. The TODO file lists features not yet implemented and other outstanding items.

Please see the INSTALL, INSTALL-strtty and README-make, files (or see Installation) for installation instructions.

When working from cvs(1) or git(1), please see the README-cvs, file (or see Downloading from CVS). An abbreviated installation procedure that works for most applications appears below.

This release of the package is published strictly under Version 3 of the GNU Affero Public License which can be found in the file COPYING. Package specific licensing terms (if any) can be found in the file LICENSES. Please respect these licensing arrangements. If you are interested in different licensing terms, please contact the copyright holder, or OpenSS7 Corporation <sales@openss7.com>.

See README-alpha (if it exists) for alpha release information.

Prerequisites

The quickest and easiest way to ensure that all prerequisites are met is to download and install this package from within the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G, instead of separately.

Prerequisites for the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package are as follows:

  1. Linux distribution, somewhat Linux Standards Base compliant, with a 2.4 or 2.6 kernel and the appropriate tool chain for compiling out-of-tree kernel modules. Most recent Linux distributions are usable out of the box, but some development packages must be installed. For more information, see Compatibility.

    − A fairly LSB compliant GNU/Linux distribution.2
    − Linux 2.4 kernel (2.4.10 - 2.4.27), or
    − Linux 2.6 kernel (2.6.3 - 2.6.26);
    − glibc2 or better.
    − GNU groff (for man pages).3
    − GNU texinfo (for info files).

(Note: If you acquired strtty a part of the OpenSS7 Master Package, then the dependencies listed below will already have been met by unpacking the master package.)

  1. OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS, streams-0.9.2.4. 4
  2. OpenSS7 STREAMS Compatibility Modules, strcompat-0.9.2.7.

When configuring and building multiple OpenSS7 Project release packages, place all of the source packages (unpacked tarballs) at the same directory level and all build directories at the same directory level (e.g. all source packages under /usr/src).

When installing packages that install as kernel modules, it is necessary to have the correct kernel development package installed. For the following distributions, use the following commands:

     Ubuntu:  $> apt-get install linux-headers
     Debian:  $> apt-get install kernel-headers
     Fedora:  $> yum install kernel-devel

You also need the same version of gcc(1) compiler with which the kernel was built. If it is not the default, add ‘CC=kgcc’ on the line after ‘./configure’, for example:

     $> ../strtty-0.9.2.4/configure CC='gcc-3.4'

Installation

The following commands will download, configure, build, check, install, validate, uninstall and remove the package:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> tar -xjvf strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> mkdir build
     $> pushd build
     $> ../strtty-0.9.2.4/configure --enable-autotest
     $> make
     $> make check
     $> sudo make install
     $> sudo make installcheck
     $> sudo make uninstall
     $> popd
     $> sudo rm -rf build
     $> rm -rf strtty-0.9.2.4
     $> rm -f strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

If you have problems, try building with the logging targets instead. If the make of a logging target fails, an automatic problem report will be generated that can be mailed to The OpenSS7 Project.5 Installation steps using the logging targets proceed as follows:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> tar -xjvf strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2
     $> mkdir build
     $> pushd build
     $> ../strtty-0.9.2.4/configure --enable-autotest
     $> make compile.log
     $> make check.log
     $> sudo make install.log
     $> sudo make installcheck.log
     $> sudo make uninstall.log
     $> popd
     $> sudo rm -rf build
     $> rm -rf strtty-0.9.2.4
     $> rm -f strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

See README-make for additional specialized make targets.

For custom applications, see the INSTALL and INSTALL-strtty files or the see Installation, as listed below. If you encounter troubles, see Troubleshooting, before issuing a bug report.

Brief Installation Instructions

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is available from the downloads area of The OpenSS7 Project website using a command such as:

     $> wget http://www.openss7.org/tarballs/strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

Unpack the tarball using a command such as:

     $> tar -xjvf strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

The tarball will unpack into the relative subdirectory named after the package name: strtty-0.9.2.4.

The package builds using the GNU autoconf utilities and the configure script. To build the package, we recommend using a separate build directory as follows:

     $> mkdir build
     $> cd build
     $> ../strtty-0.9.2.4/configure

In general, the package configures and builds without adding any special options to the configure script. For general options to the configure script, see the GNU INSTALL file in the distribution:

     $> less ../strtty-0.9.2.4/INSTALL

For specific options to the configure script, see the INSTALL-strtty file in the distribution, or simply execute the configure script with the --help option like so:

     $> ../strtty-0.9.2.4/configure --help

After configuring the package, the package can be compiled simply by issuing the ‘make’ command:

     $> make

Some specialized makefile targets exists, see the README-make file in the distribution or simply invoke the ‘help’ target like so:

     $> make help | less

After successfully building the package, the package can be checked by invoking the ‘check’ make target like so:

     $> make check

After successfully checking the package, the package can be installed by invoking the ‘install’ make target (as root) like so:

     $> sudo make install

The test suites that ship with the package can be invoked after the package has been installed by invoking the ‘installcheck’ target. This target can either be invoked as root, or as a normal user, like so:

     $> make installcheck

(Note: you must add the --enable-autotest flag to configure, above for the test suites to be invoked with ‘make installcheck’.)

The package can be cleanly removed by invoking the ‘uninstall’ target (as root):

     $> sudo make uninstall

Then the build directory and tarball can be simply removed:

     $> cd ..
     $> rm -rf build
     $> rm -rf strtty-0.9.2.4
     $> rm -f strtty-0.9.2.4.tar.bz2

Detailed Installation Instructions

More detailed installation instructions can be found in the Installation, contained in the distribution in ‘text’, ‘info’, ‘html’ and ‘pdf’ formats:

     $> cd ../strtty-0.9.2.4
     $> less doc/manual/strtty.txt
     $> lynx doc/manual/strtty.html
     $> info doc/manual/strtty.info
     $> xpdf doc/manual/strtty.pdf

The ‘text’ version of the manual is always available in the MANUAL file in the release.

The current manual is also always available online from The OpenSS7 Project website at:

     $> lynx http://www.openss7.org/strtty_manual.html

1 Introduction

This manual documents the design, implementation, installation, operation and future development schedule of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package.

1.1 Overview

This manual documents the design, implementation, installation, operation and future development of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package.

1.2 Organization of this Manual

This manual is organized (loosely) into several sections as follows:

Introduction. This introduction
Objective. Objective of the package
Reference. Contents of the package
Conformance. Conformance of the package
Releases. Releases of the package
Installation. Installation of the package
Troubleshooting. Troubleshooting of the package

1.3 Conventions and Definitions

This manual uses texinfo typographic conventions.

2 Objective

The objective for creating the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package was initially one of completeness. A number of STREAMS implementations provide the capability to include the SVR 4 style Terminal Subsystem based on STREAMS in the operating system. For completeness, Linux Fast-STREAMS package should also include such a capability and it was for that initial purpose that this package was written.6

Having a complete Terminal Subsystem based on STREAMS for Linux has other advantages. With a terminal subsystem based on STREAMS available, that at least implements pseudo-terminal devices and associated modules, permits rapid porting of UNIX applications programs that rely upon STREAMS-based terminals to the Linux Fast-STREAMS environment.

The OpenSS7 Project currently does not have any applications or STREAMS modules that depend upon the availability of the Terminal Subsystem, and this is one of the reasons that the package is initially incomplete (missing a complete ldterm(4) module) and untested (the test-tty(8) test suite is incomplete). Nevertheless, it has a most of the components of a fully functional terminal subsystem for pseudo-terminals and can easily be completed. If you have applications or modules that require the Terminal Subsystem, contact The OpenSS7 Project about advancing the completion of this package.

3 Reference

This chapter provides a reference to the contents of the STRTTY package. Please note that this texinfo documentation is not updated as regularly as the manual pages. For a more up to date package reference, please begin with the strtty(5) manual page (that documents the package).

3.1 Files

STRTTY creates the following kernel modules files in the kernel modules directory, /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/:7

modules.strtty

STRTTY installs the following kernel module files in the kernel modules directory, /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/strtty/:8

streams_pckt.ko
kernel module containing the pckt(4) STREAMS module.
streams_ptem.ko
kernel module containing the ptem(4) STREAMS module.
streams_ttcompat.ko
kernel module containing the ttcompat(4) STREAMS module.
streams_ldterm.ko
kernel module containing the ldterm(4) STREAMS module.
streams_pty.ko
kernel module containing the pty(4) STREAMS driver.

STRTTY installs the following header files in the system include directory, /usr/include/strtty/:

sys/strtty/config.h
strtty configuration header.
sys/strtty/version.h
strtty module version header.
sys/ttydev.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/termios.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/termio.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/sgtty.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/ttyio.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/strtty.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/ttychars.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
sys/pty.h
standard PTY header for use with the pty(4) STREAMS module.
ttychars.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
ttcompat.h
standard TTY compatibility header for use with the ttcompat(4) STREAMS module.
sgtty.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
termios.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.
termio.h
replacement SVR 4 terminal subsystem header file.

STRTTY installs the following test programs in the system libexec directory, /usr/libexec/strtty/:9

send-pr
send-pr.config
The send-pr stand-alone shell script can be used for the automatic generation of problem reports for the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. The send-pr.config file provides localized definitions used by the send-pr program. For more information on problem reports, See Problem Reports, and, in particular, See Stand Alone Problem Reports.
test-tty
test program.
testsuite
atlocal
The testsuite stand-alone shell script invokes test cases in the test programs above as compiled into a comprehensive regression, troubleshooting and validation test suite for the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals drivers. The atlocal file provides localized definitions used by the testsuite program. For more information on test suites, See Test Suites, and, in particular, See Running Test Suites.

STRTTY installs the following utility programs in the system binary directory, /usr/sbin/:

strtty_mknod
This utility can be used by init scripts or administrative users to create or remove device nodes in the /dev directory for OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals drivers.

STRTTY installs the following static and shared object libraries in the system library directory, /usr/lib/ (32-bit libraries) and /usr/lib64/ (64-bit libraries):

libtty.so.0.0.1
libtty.so.0
libtty.so
libtty.a
libtty.la

STRTTY installs the following internationalization catalogues in the internationalization directory, /usr/share/locale/:

de/LC_MESSAGES/strtty.mo

STRTTY installs the following init scripts in the system init directory, /etc/rc.d/init.d/ (non-Debian) or /etc/init.d/ (Debian):

strtty
This is the name of the system init script on non-Debian based systems.
strtty.sh
This is the name of the system init script on Debian based systems.

STRTTY installs the following system configuration files in the configuration directory, /etc/:

strtty.conf
This file provided configuration information for any system controls affected by the ‘strtty’ package.
modutils/strtty
This file provides module definitions and demand loading aliases for the strtty package. This file is really only applicable to older 2.4 kernels.

STRTTY installs the following system configuration file in the system configuration directory, /etc/sysconfig/ (non-Debian) or /etc/default/ (Debian):

strtty
This file provides system configuration information used by init scripts for the ‘strtty’ package. Some options of init script execution can be controlled by this file.

STRTTY installs the following info files in the system info directory, /usr/share/info/:

strtty.info
strtty.info-1
strtty.info-2
These files contain this manual in GNU info format.

STRTTY installs the following manual page macros and reference database files in the system man directory, /usr/share/man/:10

strtty.macros
This file contains manual page macro definitions included by the manual pages included in the package.
strtty.refs
This file contains a reference database referenced by the manual pages included in the package.

STRTTY installs the following manual pages in the system man directory, /usr/share/man/man3/:

grantpt.3tty
manual page for the grantpt(3tty) library function.
ptsname.3tty
manual page for the ptsname(3tty) library function.
unlockpt.3tty
manual page for the unlockpt(3tty) library function.

STRTTY installs the following manual pages in the system man directory, /usr/share/man/man4/:

ldterm.4
manual page for the ldterm(4) STREAMS module.
pckt.4
manual page for the pckt(4) STREAMS module.
ptc.4
manual page for the ptc(4) STREAMS device.
ptem.4
manual page for the ptem(4) STREAMS module.
ptm.4
manual page for the ptm(4) STREAMS driver.
ptmx.4tty
manual page for the ptmx(4tty) STREAMS device.
pts.4tty
manual page for the pts(4tty) STREAMS driver.
pty.4
manual page for the pty(4) STREAMS driver.
ttcompat.4
manual page for the ttcompat(4) STREAMS module.

STRTTY installs the following manual pages in the system man directory, /usr/share/man/man5/:

strtty.5
manual page for the strtty(5) package.

STRTTY installs the following manual pages in the system man directory, /usr/share/man/man8/:

strtty_mknod.8
Documentation for the strtty_mknod(8) utility program.
test-tty.8
manual page for the test-tty(8) program.

3.2 Drivers

The configuration of STREAMS drivers is performed when compiling the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals subsystem. The TTY subsystem, core drivers are part of every OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals system.

Kernel modules are installed by the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package in the /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/strtty/ directory, with either a ‘.o’ or ‘.ko’ extension.11

The following lists the core drivers, STREAMS kernel tunable parameters, and STREAMS configuration information:12

pty(4) (streams-pty)
See pty(4) for more information.
pts(4) (streams-pty)
See pts(4) for more information.
ptm(4) (streams-pty)
See ptm(4) for more information.

3.3 Modules

The configuration of STREAMS modules is performed when compiling the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals subsystem. The TTY subsystem, core modules are part of every OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals system.

Kernel modules are installed by the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package in the /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/strtty/ directory, with either a ‘.o’ or ‘.ko’ extension.13

The following lists the core modules, STREAMS kernel tunable parameters, and STREAMS configuration information:14

pckt(4) (streams-pckt)
See pckt(4) for more information.
ptem(4) (streams-ptem)
See ptem(4) for more information.
ttcompat(4) (streams-ttcompat)
See ttcompat(4) for more information.
ldterm(4) (streams-ldterm)
See ldterm(4) for more information.

3.4 Libraries

The Terminal Subsystem includes several library functions intended to assist application developers with the user of pseudo-terminals. Under Linux, the equivalent POSIX functions for BSD-style pseudo-terminals are contained in the libc library. The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package provides these functions in the following libraries:

libtty(3) (/usr/lib/libtty.so, /usr/lib/libtty.a)
This is the libtty(3) library that provides pseudo-terminal utilities: granpt(3tty), ptsname(3tty) and unlockpt(3tty).

See libtty(3) for more information.

3.5 Utilities

3.5.1 Init Scripts

Following are System V Init Scripts that are installed by the package:

strtty(8) (/etc/init.d/strtty)
strtty.sh(8) (/etc/init.d/strtty.sh)
System V Init Script for the TTY Subsystem. The strtty(8) init script provides the ability to initialize, configure and mount the TTY subsystem, strtty(5). The strtty(8) script provides the RedHat-style init script, whereas the strtty.sh(8) script provides the Debian-style init script.

See strtty(8) for more information.

3.5.2 User Utilities

Following are user utilities for manipulating Streams:

The STRTTY package does not currently contain any user utilities.

3.5.3 Administrative Utilities

Following are administrative utilities for manipulating and examining the TTY subsystem:

The STRTTY package does not currently contain any administrative utilities.

3.5.4 Performance Test Programs

Following are performance test programs:

The STRTTY package does not currently contain any performance test programs.

3.5.5 Conformance Test Programs

Following and conformance and validation testing programs:

test-tty(8) (/usr/libexec/strtty/test-tty)
The test-tty(8) C-language program is a conformance and validation test program, in the OpenSS7 Project style, for the pty(4) STREAMS driver.

See test-tty(8) for more information.

For the proper way to execute these validation test programs in a conformance and validation test suite, see Running Test Suites.

3.6 Development

The STRTTY package contains the necessary header files, shared and static libraries, manuals and manual pages necessary for the development of kernel modules, STREAMS modules and drivers, and applications programs based on the STRTTY package.

3.6.1 Header Files

Header files are installed, typically, in the /usr/include/strtty subdirectory.15 To use the header files from the package, ‘-I/usr/include/strtty’ must be included in the gcc command line as a compile option. This is true regardless of whether user space or kernel space programs are being compiled.

In general, ‘-I’ include directives on the gcc command line should be ordered in the reverse order of the dependencies between packages. So, for example, if the include files from all add-on packages are required, the order of these directives would be: ‘-I/usr/include/strss7 -I/usr/include/strsctp -I/usr/include/strinet -I/usr/include/strxnet -I/usr/include/strxns -I/usr/include/strcompat -I/usr/include/streams’.

Following are the user visible header files provided by the strtty-0.9.2.4 package in directory /usr/include/strtty:

sys/ttydev.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/termios.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/termio.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/sgtty.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/ttyio.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/strtty.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/ttychars.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
sys/pty.h
See pty(4) for more information.
ttychars.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
ttcompat.h
See ttcompat(4) for more information.
sgtty.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
termios.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
termio.h
This is a replacement for the standard SVR 4 header file.
3.6.1.1 User Space Programs

Typical include files for interacting with STREAMS from user space include the stropts.h header file. Additional header files for interacting with specific drivers or modules may also be required.

3.6.1.2 Kernel Space Drivers and Modules

Typical include files for writing STREAMS modules and drivers for kernel space include the sys/cmn_err.h, sys/kmem.h, sys/dki.h, sys/stream.h, sys/ddi.h, and sys/strconf.h header files. Additional header files for interacting with specific drivers or modules may also be required.

3.6.2 Libraries

Shared or static versions of the libstreams library must be linked when using the strtty-0.9.2.4 package. This library must either be specified on the gcc command line as a shared library (e.g. ‘-lstreams’) or as a static library (e.g. ‘/usr/lib/libstreams.a’).

If the shared library is linked, include the following options on the gcc command line:

If the static library is linked, include the following options on the gcc command line:

3.6.3 Kernel Modules

Developing STREAMS kernel modules is similar to user space programs with regard to header files. /usr/include/strtty should be placed as an include directory to search in the gcc command line. The rules for compiling Linux kernel modules should be followed. In particular, several important intricacies should be considered:

  • The gcc compiler used to compile the kernel modules must be the same version of compiler that was used to compile the kernel.
  • The gcc command line must have the same compile flags that were used to compile the kernel.
  • The gcc command line must define several important kernel defines including ‘-DLINUX’, ‘-D__KERNEL__’, as well as the base name of the module.
  • The gcc command line must include several important include files directly on the command line such as ‘--include /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/build/include/linux/autoconf.h’ and maybe even ‘--include /lib/modules/2.4.20-28.7/build/include/linux/modversions.h’.16

3.6.4 Manual Pages

The strtty-0.9.2.4 package installs the following manual pages in the /usr/share/man/ subdirectory:

grantpt(3tty)grant access to a slave pseudo-terminal device.
ptsname(3tty)get name of the slave pseudo-terminal device.
unlockpt(3tty)unlock a slave pseudo-terminal device.
ldterm(4)Line Discipline for Terminals.
pckt(4)Packet Mode module.
ptc(4)Pseudo-Terminal Master and Slave drivers.
ptem(4)Pseudo-Terminal Emulation module.
ptm(4)Pseudo-Terminal Master and Slave drivers.
ptmx(4tty)Pseudo-Terminal Master and Slave drivers.
pts(4tty)Pseudo-Terminal Master and Slave drivers.
pty(4)Pseudo-Terminal Master and Slave drivers.
ttcompat(4)TTY Compatibility module.
strtty(5)OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package.
strtty_mknod(8)create or remove Terminal device nodes.
test-tty(8)a test suite executable for strtty(5).

4 Conformance

When developing the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package, an attempt was made to maintain compatibility and conformance across as many documented implementations of the SVR 4 Terminal Subsystem as possible. It is intended that conformance to specifications for the terminal subsystem be tested using the test-tty(8) test case executable and the package autotest test suite; however, at the time of writing these test programs are incomplete.

5 Releases

This is the OpenSS7 Release of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals tools, drivers and modules used with the Linux Fast-STREAMS or Linux STREAMS17 SVR 4.2 STREAMS releases.

The purpose of providing a separate release of this package was to separate the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals tools, headers, drivers and modules from the Linux STREAMS18 package for use with both Linux STREAMS19 and Linux Fast-STREAMS in preparation for replacement of the former by the later.

The following sections provide information on OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals releases as well as compatibility information of OpenSS7 release to mainstream UNIX releases of the core, modules and drivers, as well as Linux kernel compatibility.

5.1 Prerequisites

The quickest and easiest way to ensure that all prerequisites are met is to download and install this package from within the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G, instead of separately.

Prerequisites for the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package are as follows:

  1. Linux distribution, somewhat Linux Standards Base compliant, with a 2.4 or 2.6 kernel and the appropriate tool chain for compiling out-of-tree kernel modules. Most recent Linux distributions are usable out of the box, but some development packages must be installed. For more information, see Compatibility.

    − A fairly LSB compliant GNU/Linux distribution.20
    − Linux 2.4 kernel (2.4.10 - 2.4.27), or
    − Linux 2.6 kernel (2.6.3 - 2.6.26);
    − glibc2 or better.
    − GNU groff (for man pages).21
    − GNU texinfo (for info files).

(Note: If you acquired strtty a part of the OpenSS7 Master Package, then the dependencies listed below will already have been met by unpacking the master package.)

  1. OpenSS7 Linux Fast-STREAMS, streams-0.9.2.4. 22
  2. OpenSS7 STREAMS Compatibility Modules, strcompat-0.9.2.7.

If you need to rebuild the package from sources with modifications, you will need a larger GNU tool chain as described in See Downloading from CVS.

5.2 Compatibility

This section discusses compatibility with major prerequisites.

5.2.1 GNU/Linux Distributions

OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals is compatible with the following Linux distributions:23

  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 3.4 (centos34) TBD
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 4.0 (centos4) TBD
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 4.92 (centos49) TBD
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 5.0 (centos5)
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 5.1 (centos51)
  • CentOS Enterprise Linux 5.2 (centos52)
  • Debian 3.0r2 Woody (deb3.0) TBD
  • Debian 3.1r0a Sarge (deb3.1) TBD
  • Debian 4.0r1 Etch (deb4.0)
  • Debian 4.0r2 Etch (deb4.0)
  • Debian 4.0r3 Etch (deb4.0)
  • Fedora Core 1 (FC1) TBD
  • Fedora Core 2 (FC2) TBD
  • Fedora Core 3 (FC3) TBD
  • Fedora Core 4 (FC4) TBD
  • Fedora Core 5 (FC5) TBD
  • Fedora Core 6 (FC6) TBD
  • Fedora 7 (FC7)
  • Fedora 8 (FC8)
  • Fedora 9 (FC9)
  • Gentoo 2006.1 (untested) TBD
  • Gentoo 2007.1 (untested) TBD
  • Lineox 4.026 (LEL4) TBD
  • Lineox 4.053 (LEL4) TBD
  • Mandrakelinux 9.2 (MDK92) TBD
  • Mandrakelinux 10.0 (MDK100) TBD
  • Mandrakelinux 10.1 (MDK101) TBD
  • Mandriva Linux LE2005 (MDK102) TBD
  • Mandriva Linux LE2006 (MDK103) TBD
  • Mandriva One (untested)
  • RedHat Linux 7.2 (RH7)
  • RedHat Linux 7.3 (RH7)
  • RedHat Linux 8.0 (RH8) TBD
  • RedHat Linux 9 (RH9) TBD
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 3.0 (EL3) TBD
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 4 (EL4)
  • RedHat Enterprise Linux 5 (EL5)
  • SuSE 8.0 Professional (SuSE8.0) TBD
  • SuSE 9.1 Personal (SuSE9.1) TBD
  • SuSE 9.2 Professional (SuSE9.2) TBD
  • SuSE OpenSuSE (SuSEOSS) TBD
  • SuSE 10.0 (SuSE10.0) TBD
  • SuSE 10.1 (SuSE10.1) TBD
  • SuSE 10.2 (SuSE10.2) TBD
  • SuSE 10.3 (SuSE10.3) TBD
  • SuSE 11.0 (SuSE11.0)
  • SLES 9 (SLES9) TBD
  • SLES 9 SP2 (SLES9) TBD
  • SLES 9 SP3 (SLES9) TBD
  • SLES 10 (SLES10)
  • Ubuntu 5.10 (ubu5.10) TBD
  • Ubuntu 6.03 LTS (ubu6.03) TBD
  • Ubuntu 6.10 (ubu6.10) TBD
  • Ubuntu 7.04 (ubu7.04) TBD
  • Ubuntu 7.10 (ubu7.10)
  • Ubuntu 8.04 (ubu8.04)
  • WhiteBox Enterprise Linux 3.0 (WBEL3) TBD
  • WhiteBox Enterprise Linux 4 (WBEL4) TBD

When installing from the tarball (see Installing the Tar Ball), this distribution is probably compatible with a much broader array of distributions than those listed above. These are the distributions against which the current maintainer creates and tests builds.

5.2.2 Kernel

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package compiles as a Linux kernel module. It is not necessary to patch the Linux kernel to build or use the package.24 Nor do you have to recompile your kernel to build or use the package. OpenSS7 packages use autoconf scripts to adapt the package source to your existing kernel. The package builds and runs nicely against production kernels from the distributions listed above. Rather than relying on kernel versions, the autoconf scripts interrogate the kernel for specific features and variants to better adapt to distribution production kernels that have had patches applied over the official kernel.org sources.

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is compatible with 2.4 kernel series after 2.4.10 and has been tested up to and including 2.4.27. It has been tested from 2.6.3 up to and including 2.6.26 (with Fedora 9, openSUSE 11.0 and Ubuntu 8.04 patchsets). Please note that your mileage may vary if you use a kernel more recent than 2.6.26.4: it is difficult to anticipate changes that kernel developers will make in the future. Many kernels in the 2.6 series now vary widely by release version and if you encounter problems, try a kernel within the supported series.

UP validation testing for kernels is performed on all supported architectures. SMP validation testing was initially performed on UP machines, as well as on an Intel 3.0GHz Pentium IV 630 with HyperThreading enabled (2x). Because HyperThreading is not as independent as multiple CPUs, SMP validation testing was limited. Current releases have been tested on dual 1.8GHz Xeon HP servers (2x) as well as dual quad-core SunFire (8x) servers.

It should be noted that, while the packages will configure, build and install against XEN kernels, that problems running validation test suites against XEN kernels has been reported. XEN kernels are explicitly not supported. This may change at some point in the future if someone really requires running OpenSS7 under a XEN kernel.

5.2.3 Architectures

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package compiles and installs on a wide range of architectures. Although it is believed that the package will work on all architectures supported by the Linux kernel being used, validation testing has only been performed with the following architectures:

  • ix86
  • x86_64
  • ppc (MPC 860)
  • ppc64

32-bit compatibility validation testing is performed on all 64-bit architectures supporting 32-bit compatibility. If you would like to validate an OpenSS7 package on a specific machine architecture, you are welcome to sponsor the project with a test machine.

5.2.4 Linux STREAMS

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is currently compatible with Linux STREAMS,25 however, to use the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package with LiS requires use of the OpenSS7 release packages of LiS. The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is compatible with the OpenSS7 LiS-2.18.7 release that is available from the The OpenSS7 Project Downloads Page. But, do not use LiS: it is buggy, unsupported and deprecated. Use Linux Fast-STREAMS instead.

5.2.5 Linux Fast-STREAMS

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is currently compatible with Linux Fast-STREAMS (LfS). The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package is compatible with the OpenSS7 streams-0.9.2.4 release that is available from the The OpenSS7 Project Downloads Page.

5.3 Release Notes

The sections that follow provide information on OpenSS7 releases of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package.

Major changes for release strtty-0.9.2.4

This is the fourth separate OpenSS7 Project release of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. This package provides pts and ptm pseudo-terminal drivers, as well as an ldterm module. Additional modules are the ptem, ttcompat and pckt modules. The package contains all the necessary manual pages and other documentation for terminal and pseudo-terminal components in a separate autoconf tarball. The release includes maintenance support for recent distributions and tool chain, but also includes some performance and feature upgrades and inspection bug fixes. It deprecates previous releases. Please upgrade before reporting bugs on previous releases.

This release is primarily a maintenance release.

Major features since the last public release are as follows:

  • Minor documentation corrections.
  • Kernel module license made explicit "GPL v2". And then changed back to "GPL".
  • License upgrade to AGPL Version 3.
  • Modifications to build under Fedora2.6.22.5-49’ kernel. These changes also support ‘2.6.22.9-91.fc7’ kernel.
  • Ability to strap out major documentation build and installation primarily for embedded targets.
  • Improvements to common build process for embedded and cross-compile targets.
  • Modifications to build under Fedora2.6.25-45.fc9’ and ‘2.6.26.5-45.fc9’ kernels.
  • Updated tool chain to m4-1.4.12, autoconf-2.63 and texinfo-4.13.
  • Conversion of RPM spec files to common approach for major subpackages.
  • Updated references database for manual pages and roff documents.
  • Build system now builds yum(8) repositories for RPMs and apt-get(8) repositories for DEBs. Installation documentation has been updated to include details of repository install sourcesref.
  • Added MODULE_VERSION to all modules and drivers.

This is a public alpha release of the package. Please see README-alpha in the release, or Maturity.

This is a public alpha release of the package. This package is currently incomplete. It is being released as a reference point for the community. If you are interested in completion of this package, contact info@openss7.com.

As with other OpenSS7 releases, this release configures, compiles, installs and builds RPMs and DEBs for a wide range of Linux 2.4 and 2.6 RPM- and DPKG-based distributions, and can be used on production kernels without patching or recompiling the kernel.

This package is publicly released under the GNU Affero General Public License Version 3. The release is available as an autoconf tarball, SRPM, DSC, and set of binary RPMs and DEBs. See the downloads page for the autoconf tarballs, SRPMs and DSCs. For tarballs, SRPMs, DSCs and binary RPMs and DEBs, see the strtty package page.

See http://www.openss7.org/codefiles/strtty-0.9.2.4/ChangeLog and http://www.openss7.org/codefiles/strtty-0.9.2.4/NEWS in the release for more information. Also, see the strtty.pdf manual in the release (also in html http://www.openss7.org/strtty_manual.html).

For the news release, see http://www.openss7.org/rel20081029_G.html.

Major changes for release strtty-0.9.2.3

This is the third separate release from The OpenSS7 Project of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. This package provides pts and ptm pseudo-terminal drivers, as well as an ldterm module. Additional modules are the ptem, ttcompat and pckt modules. The package contains all the necessary manual pages and other documentation for terminal and pseudo-terminal components in a separate autoconf tarball.

This release is a maintenance release providing support for recent distributions and tool chains.

Major features since the last public release are as follows:

  • Support build on openSUSE 10.2.
  • Support build on Fedora 7 with 2.6.21 kernel.
  • Support build on CentOS 5.0 (RHEL5).
  • Support build on Ubuntu 7.04.
  • Updated to gettext 0.16.1.
  • Changes to support build on 2.6.20-1.2307.fc5 and 2.6.20-1.2933.fc6 kernel.
  • Supports build on Fedora Core 6.
  • Support for recent distributions and tool chains.

Major changes for release strtty-0.9.2.2

This is the second separate release from The OpenSS7 Project of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. This package provides pts and ptm pseudo-terminal drivers, as well as an ldterm module. Additional modules are the ptem, ttcompat and pckt modules. The package contains all the necessary manual pages and other documentation for terminal and pseudo-terminal components in a separate autoconf tarball.

This release is a maintenance release providing support for recent distributions and tool chains.

Major features since the last public release are as follows:

  • Improvements to the common build environment with better support for standalone package builds on 2.4 kernels.
  • Support for autoconf 2.61, automake 1.10 and gettext 0.16.
  • Support for Ubuntu 6.10 distribution and bug fixes for i386 kernels.
  • The package now looks for other subpackages with a version number as unpacked by separate tarball.

Major changes for release strtty-0.9.2.1

This is the first separate release from The OpenSS7 Project of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. This package provides pts and ptm pseudo-terminal drivers, as well as an ldterm module. Additional modules are the ptem, ttcompat and pckt modules. The package contains all the necessary manual pages and other documentation for terminal and pseudo-terminal components in a separate autoconf tarball.

This release is the initial public release.

  • In this initial release, the package already supports a wide range of production distributions as it uses the same build environment as other OpenSS7 Project packages.
  • Support for most recent 2.6.18 kernels (including Fedora Core 5 with inode diet patch set).

5.4 Maturity

The OpenSS7 Project adheres to the following release philosophy:

  • pre-alpha release
  • alpha release
  • beta release
  • gamma release
  • production release
  • unstable release

5.4.1 Pre-Alpha Releases

Pre-alpha releases are releases that have received no testing whatsoever. Code in the release is not even known to configure or compile. The purpose of a pre-alpha release is to make code and documentation available for inspection only, and to solicit comments on the design approach or other characteristics of the software package.

Pre-alpha release packages ship containing warnings recommending that the user not even execute the contained code.

5.4.2 Alpha Releases

Alpha releases are releases that have received little to no testing, or that have been tested and contains known bugs or defects that make the package unsuitable even for testing. The purpose for an alpha release are the same as for the pre-alpha release, with the additional purpose that it is an early release of partially functional code that has problems that an external developer might be willing to fix themselves and contribute back to the project.

Alpha release packages ship containing warnings that executing the code can crash machines and might possibly do damage to systems upon which it is executed.

5.4.3 Beta Releases

Beta releases are releases that have received some testing, but the testing to date is not exhaustive. Beta release packages do not ship with known defects. All known defects are resolved before distribution; however, as exhaustive testing has not been performed, unknown defects may exist. The purpose for a beta release is to provide a baseline for other organizations to participate in the rigorous testing of the package.

Beta release packages ship containing warnings that the package has not been exhaustively tested and that the package may cause systems to crash. Suitability of software in this category for production use is not advised by the project; however, as always, is at the discretion of the user of the software.

5.4.4 Gamma Releases

Gamma releases are releases that have received exhaustive testing within the project, but external testing has been minimal. Gamma release packages do not ship with known defects. As exhaustive internal testing has been performed, unknown defects should be few. Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY on public release packages.

Gamma release packages typically resolve problems in previous beta releases, and might not have had full regression testing performed. Suitability of software in this category for production use is at the discretion of the user of the software. The OpenSS7 Project recommends that the complete validation test suites provided with the package be performed and pass on target systems before considering production use.

5.4.5 Production Releases

Production releases are releases that have received exhaustive testing within the project and validated on specific distributions and architectures. Production release packages do not ship with known defects. Please remember that there is NO WARRANTY on public release packages.

Production packages ship containing a list of validated distributions and architectures. Full regression testing of any maintenance changes is performed. Suitability of software in this category for production use on the specified target distributions and architectures is at the discretion of the user. It should not be necessary to preform validation tests on the set of supported target systems before considering production use.

5.4.6 Unstable Releases

Unstable releases are releases that have received extensive testing within the project and validated on a a wide range of distributions and architectures; however, is has tested unstable and found to be suffering from critical problems and issues that cannot be resolved. Maintenance of the package has proved impossible. Unstable release packages ship with known defects (and loud warnings). Suitability of software in this category for production use is at the discretion of the user of the software. The OpenSS7 Project recommends that the problems and issues be closely examined before this software is used even in a non-production environment. Each failing test scenario should be completely avoided by the application. OpenSS7 beta software is more stable that software in this category.

5.5 Bugs

5.5.1 Defect Notices

OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals has known and unknown defects. This is a pre-alpha release. Some defects might be harmful. No validation testing whatsoever has been performed by the OpenSS7 Project on this software. The software might not even configure or compile. The OpenSS7 Project recommends that you do not use this software. Use at your own risk. Remember that there is NO WARRANTY.26

This software is pre-alpha software. As such, it will crash your kernel. Installation of the software will irreparably mangle your header files or Linux distribution in such a way as to make it unusable. Crashes will lock your system and rebooting the system will not repair the problem. You will lose all the data on your system. Because this software will crash your kernel, the resulting unstable system can destroy computer hardware or peripherals making them unusable. You will void the warranty on any system on which you run this software. YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED.

5.5.2 Known Defects

With the exception of packages not originally created by the OpenSS7 Project, the OpenSS7 Project software does not ship with known bugs in any release stage except pre-alpha. OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals had no known bugs at the time of release.

5.5.3 Defect History

This section contains historical bugs that were encountered during development and their resolutions. This list serves two purposes:

  1. It captures bugs encountered between releases during development that could possibly reoccur (and the Moon is made of blue cheese). It therefore provides a place for users to look if they encounter a problem.
  2. It provides a low overhead bug list between releases for developers to use as a TODO list.
Bugs
001. 2007-03-09T15:31:23-0700
The package was installing /dev/ptmx and /dev/pts/n device and removing them when uninstalling. This caused havoc with Linux's UNIX'95 pseudo-terminal devices. They have been strapped out until later.

*fixed* in strtty-0.9.2.2

5.6 Schedule

Current Plan

This package is still incomplete. It is missing a fully functional ldterm module. Also, performance testing of STREAMS-based pipes from the Linux Fast-STREAMS base package indicates that STREAMS-based pseudo-terminals could exhibit far superior performance to that exhibited by the legacy Linux (SVR 3 style) pseduo-terminals. To accomplish this requires fully implementing ldterm, creating validation test suites, and peformance analysis and comparison with legacy Linux mechanisms.

This package is not currently a priority for the OpenSS7 Project, which is focussed on more telecom-specific protocol stacks and capabilities. Nevertheless, if completion of this package is important in your industry and your organization is able to fund further development or contribute the missing items, contact us on the openss7-develop mailing list. Until funding or a mandate surfaces, this package will likely continue as a proof-of-concept only. It will be maintained in a compilable and installable package (that is, it will be updated for current Linux distributions and kernels) on the same basis as other packages in the OpenSS7 master package.

Things to Do
  • Testing. This package is completely untested.

    *todo*

  • Create a library libtty(3) to hold the library functions for use with this package:

    openpt(3)
    grantpt(3)
    ptsname(3)
    unlockpt(3)

    *todo*

  • Create an ldterm(4) Line Discipline for Terminals STREAMS module. This item remains to be done. Al that is in place right now is a skeleton module.

    *todo*

  • Create a ttcompat(4) TTY Compatibility STREAMS module.
    *done*
    Created a ttcompat(4) module. This module compiles and installs and is fully documented, but is completely untested.
  • Create a pckt(4) Packet Mode STREAMS module.
    *done*
    Created a pckt(4) module. This module compiles and installs and is fully documented, but is completely untested.
  • Create a ptem(4) Pseudo-Terminal Emulation STREAMS module.
    *done*
    Created a ptem(4) module. This module compiles and installs and is fully documented, but is completely untested.
  • Create a pty(4) Pseudo-Terminal STREAMS driver. This driver will provide both slave (pts(4)) and master (ptm(4)) STREAMS devices.
    *done*
    Created ptm(4) and pts(4) driver. This driver compiles and installs and is fully documented, but is completely untested.
  • Move already written code from the stacks or strss7 directories into the src directory.
    *done*
  • Create a skeleton directory and manual and place strtty as a subpackage in the OpenSS7 Master Package.
    *done*
    You are reading it.

The strtty package is currently incomplete.

The purpose of the package was to provide STREAMS terminal capabilities for Linux Fast-STREAMS. These drivers and modules cannot possibly work with LiS: LiS does not provide TTY semantics at the Stream head and is incapable of providing a controlling terminal, and does not do POSIX job control. The package will only build and install with Linux Fast-STREAMS

If someone is interested in this package, a contribution of a working ldterm(4) module would be good. Also, testing could be performed.

5.7 History

For the latest developments with regard to history of changes, please see the ChangeLog file in the release package.

6 Installation

6.1 Repositories

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package release can be accessed from the repositories of The OpenSS7 Project. For rpm(1) based systems, the package is available in a yum(8) repository based on repomd XML and may also be accessed using zypper(8) or yast(8). For dpkg(1) based systems, the package is available in a apt(8) repository.

By far the easiest (most repeatable and manageable) form for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to install packages from the yum(8) or apt(8) repositories. If your distribution does not support yum(8), zypper(8), yast(8) or apt(8), then it is still possible to install the RPMs or DEBs from the repositories using rpm(1), dpkg(1); or by using wget(1) and then installing them from RPM or DEB using rpm(1) or dpkg(1) locally.

If binaries are not available for your distribution or specific kernel, but your distribution supports rpm(1) or dpkg(1), the next best method for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to download and rebuild the source RPMs or DSCs from the repository. This can also be performed with yum(8), zypper(8), yast(8), apt(8); or directly using wget(1), rpm(1) or dpkg(1).

If your architecture does not support rpm(1) or dpkg(1) at all, or you have special needs (such as cross-compiling for embedded targets), the final resort method is to download, configure, build and install from tarball. In this later case, the easiest way to build and install OpenSS7 packages from tarball is to use the tarball for the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G.

6.1.1 Repositories for YUM

To install or upgrade from the OpenSS7 repomd repositories, you will need a file in your /etc/yum.repo.d/ directory. This file can be obtained directly from the OpenSS7 repository, like so:

     $> REPOS="http://www.openss7.org/repos/rpms"
     $> wget $REPOS/centos/5.2/x86_64/repodata/openss7.repo
     $> sudo cp -f openss7.repo /etc/yum.repo.d/
     $> sudo yum makecache

This example assumes the the distribution is ‘centos’ and the distribution release is ‘5.2’ and the architecture requires is ‘x86_64’. Another example would be $REPOS/i686/suse/11.0/i686/repodata/openss7.repo, for using yum(8) with SUSE.

Once the repository is set up, OpenSS7 includes a number of virtual package definitions that eas the installation and removal of kernel modules, libraries and utilities. Downloading, configuring, building and installation for a single-kernel distribution is as easy as:

     $> sudo yum install strtty

Removing the package is as easy as:

     $> sudo yum remove strtty

If you have difficulty downloading the openss7.repo file, edit the following information into the file and place it into the /etc/yum.repo.d/openss7.repo file:

     -| [openss7]
     -| enabled = 1
     -| name = OpenSS7 Repository
     -| baseurl = http://www.openss7.org/repos/rpms/centos/5.2/x86_64
     -| gpgcheck = 1
     -| gpgkey = http://www.openss7.org/pubkey.asc

Note that it is also possible to point to these repositories as an additional installation source when installing CentOS, RedHat, Fedora, or others. You will have an additional STREAMS category from which to choose installation packages.

Some additional installation real or virtual package names and the installations they accomplish are as follows:

strtty
This package can be used to install or remove the entire OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. When installing, kernel modules will be installed automatically for the highest version kernel on your system. When removing, all corresponding kernel modules will also be removed.
strtty-devel
This package can be used to install or remove the development components of the OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package. When installing, ‘strtty’ and appropriate kernel module and kernel module development and debug packages will also be installed. When removing, the development package and all kernel module development and debug packages will also be removed.
strtty-2.4.20-28.7
This package can be used to install or remove the package for a specific kernel version. When installing, the ‘strtty’ package will also be installed if necessary. When removing the last kernel module package, the ‘strtty’ package will also be removed.

Note that the version ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. Use the version returned by ‘$(uname -r)’ for the kernel for which you wish to install or remove the packages.

strtty-2.4.20-28.7-devel
This package can be used to install or remove the development and debug packages for a specific kernel version. When installing, the ‘strtty’ and ‘strtty-devel’ packages will also be installed if necessary. When removing the development and debug for kernel modules for the last kernel, the ‘strtty-devel’ package will also be removed.

Note that the version ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. Use the version returned by ‘$(uname -r)’ for the kernel for which you wish to install or remove the packages.

For assistance with specific RPMs, see Downloading the Binary RPM.

6.1.2 Repositories for APT

For assistance with specific DEBs, see Downloading the Debian DEB.

6.2 Downloading

The OpenSS7 STREAMS Terminals package releases can be downloaded from the downloads page of The OpenSS7 Project. The package is available as a binary RPM (for popular architectures) a source RPM, Debian binary DEB and source DSC, or as a tar ball. If you are using a browsable viewer, you can obtain the OpenSS7 release of strtty from the links in the sections that follow.

By far the easiest (most repeatable and manageable) form for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to download and install individual packages from binary RPM or DEB. If binary RPMs or DEBs are not available for your distribution, but your distribution supports rpm(1) or dpkg(1), the next best method for installing and using OpenSS7 packages is to download and rebuild the source RPMs or DSCs.

If your architecture does not support rpm(1) or dpkg(1) at all, or you have special needs (such as cross-compiling for embedded targets), the final resort method is to download, configure, build and install from tarball. In this later case, the easiest way to build and install OpenSS7 packages from tarball is to use the tarball for the OpenSS7 Master Package, openss7-0.9.2.G.

6.2.1 Downloading with YUM

OpenSS7 repositories support yum(8) and zypper(8) in repomd XML format as well as YaST and YaST2 formats.

OpenSS7 includes virtual packages that ease the installation and removal of kernel modules, libraries and utilities. Downloading, configuration, building and installation for a signle-kernel distribution installation is as easy as:

     % sudo yum install strtty

This and additional packages for installation are detailed as follows:

strtty
Install this package if you need the runtime strtty package.
          % sudo yum install strtty

This will install the strtty, strtty-lib and strtty-KVERSION RPMs, where ‘KVERSION’ is the highest version number kernel on your system.

Remove this package if you need to remove all vestages of the strtty package.

          % sudo yum remove strtty

This will remove the strtty, strtty-lib, strtty-devel, strtty-KVERSION and strtty-devel-KVERSION RPMs for all kernels on your system.

strtty-devel
Install this package if you need the development strtty package.
          % sudo yum install strtty-devel

This will install the strtty, strtty-lib, strtty-devel, strtty-KVERSION and strtty-devel-KVERSION RPMs, where ‘KVERSION’ is the highest version number kernel on your system.

Remove this package if you do not need development capabilities for the strtty package for any kernel.

          % sudo yum remove strtty-devel

This will remove the strtty-devel and strtty-devel-KVERSION RPMs for all kernels on your system.

strtty-2.4.20-28.7
Install this package if you need the runtime strtty for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can install the runtime strtty components with:
          % sudo yum install strtty-$(uname -r)

This will install the strtty, strtty-lib and strtty-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified.

Remove this package if you no longer need the runtime strtty for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can remove the runtime strtty components with:

          % sudo yum remove strtty-$(uname -r)

This will remove the strtty-2.4.20-28.7 and strtty-devel-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified. Also, if this is the last kernel for which strtty was installed, the strtty strtty-lib and strtty-devel RPMs will also be removed.

Note that this is a virtual package name: the actual RPMs installed or removed from the system is a kernel module package whose precise name will depend upon the system being used.

strtty-devel-2.4.20-28.7
Install this package if you need the development strtty package for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can install the kernel development strtty components with:
          % sudo yum install strtty-devel-$(uname -r)

This will install the strtty, strtty-lib, strtty-devel, strtty-2.4.20-28.7 and strtty-devel-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified.

Remove this package if you no longer need the development capabilities for the strtty package for kernel version ‘2.4.20-28.7’. The value ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is just an example. For the running kernel, you can remove the kernel development strtty components with:

          % sudo yum remove strtty-devel-$(uname -r)

This will remove the strtty-devel-2.4.20-28.7 RPMs, where ‘2.4.20-28.7’ is the kernel version specified. Also, if this is the last kernel for which strtty was installed, the strtty-devel RPMs will also be removed.

Note that this is a virtual package name: the actual RPMs installed or removed from the system is a kernel module package whose precise name will depend upon the system being used.

strtty-lib
This package is an auxillary package that should be removed and inserted automatically by yum(8). In rare instances you might need to remove or install this package explicitly.

6.2.2 Downloading with APT

OpenSS7 repositries support apt(8) repositorie digests and signatures.

6.2.3 Downloading the Binary RPM

To install from binary RPM, you will need several of the RPM for a complete installation. Binary RPM fall into several categories. To download and install a complete package requires the appropriate RPM from each of the several categories below, as applicable. Some release packages do not provide RPMs in each of the several categories.

To install from Binary RPM, you will need all of the following kernel independent packages for your architecture, and one of the kernel-dependent packages from the next section.

Independent RPM

Independent RPM are dependent on neither the Linux kernel version, nor the STRE